Assessment of Cement Raw Materials

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Assessment of Cement Raw Materials

 

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Why assess raw materials?

  • Judge suitability for cement manufacturing
  • Allow selection of suitable equipment and processes

 

  • Criteria

-Chemical composition to conform with cement requirement

-Handling and comminution properties

-Burning behaviour

  • Determined by

-Chemical composition

-Mineralogical composition

-Petrographical properties

 

Assessment of Raw Materials Based on Chemical Characteristics

Raw Materials for the Cement Industry

  • Main Components

-Calcareous

-Argillaceous

-Cement Stone

  • Corrective Materials

-C, S, A, F rich Materials

  • Additive Materials

-Gypsum

-Fly-Ash

-Pozzolan

-Slag

-Mineralizer

Chemical Composition

Main ElementsMinor Elements Trace Elements SiO2 MgO Tl Al2O3 SO3 Cd Fe2O3 K2O Hg CaO Na2O etc. TiO2 Cr2O3 P2O5 Cl F
Main Elements Minor Elements Trace Elements
SiO2 MgO Tl
Al2O3 SO3 Cd
Fe2O3 K2O Hg
CaO Na2O etc.
TiO2
Cr2O3
P2O5
Cl
F

 

Requirement Cement vs. Offer Earth Crust ElementTypical for Average earth cement (%) crust (%) Ca 46 4 Si 10 28 Al 3 8 Fe 3 5
Requirement Cement vs. Offer Earth Crust
Element Typical for Average earth cement (%) crust (%)
Ca 46 4
Si 10 28
Al 3 8
Fe 3 5

Classification of Calcareous Components

CaCO3Designation Petrographic Desig. 95 - 100 High-grade Limestone Limestone Marble Chalk Coral Limestone 85 - 95 Limestone Lime Sand Shell Deposit 75 - 85 Marly Limestone Marly Limestone
CaCO3 Designation Petrographic Desig.
95 – 100 High-grade Limestone Limestone
Marble
Chalk
Coral Limestone
85 – 95 Limestone Lime Sand
Shell Deposit
75 – 85 Marly Limestone Marly Limestone

Classification of Argillaceous Components

CaCO3Clay Designation Petrographic Desig. 65-75 25-35 Calcareous Marl Calcareous Marl 35-65 35-65 Marl Marl 25-35 65-75 Clayey Marl Clayey Marl 15-25 75-85 Marly Clay Clay Loess 5-15 85-95 Clay Claystone Mudstone 0-5 95-100 High Grade Clay Siltstone Shale
CaCO3 Clay Designation Petrographic Desig.
65-75 25-35 Calcareous Marl Calcareous Marl
35-65 35-65 Marl Marl
25-35 65-75 Clayey Marl Clayey Marl
15-25 75-85 Marly Clay Clay
Loess
5-15 85-95 Clay Claystone
Mudstone
0-5 95-100 High Grade Clay Siltstone
Shale

Corrective Materials

To correct theCorrective Minimum deficiency of material concentration “Iron” (Fe2O3) Iron Ore 60% Fe2O3 Pyrites Ash 60-90% Fe2O3 “Alumina” (Al2O3) Bauxite 50% Al2O3 Laterite 25% Al2O3 Kaolinite 40% Al2O3 “Silica” (SiO2) Quartz sand 80% SiO2 Quartzite 80% SiO2 “Lime” (CaO) Limestone 90% CaCO3 Marble
To correct the Corrective Minimum
deficiency of material concentration
“Iron” (Fe2O3) Iron Ore 60% Fe2O3
Pyrites Ash 60-90% Fe2O3
“Alumina” (Al2O3) Bauxite 50% Al2O3
Laterite 25% Al2O3
Kaolinite 40% Al2O3
“Silica” (SiO2) Quartz sand 80% SiO2
Quartzite 80% SiO2
“Lime” (CaO) Limestone 90% CaCO3
Marble

Effects of Minor Elements

ElementConcentration Limits Effect Raw Meal (%) Cem. (%) MgO 0.50 - 4.00 5 - 6 Expansion Standards SO3 0.04 - 1.06 2.3 - 4 Volatilisation Standards Setting behaviour Emission K2O 0.01 - 1.40 0.6 Volatilisation Na2O 0.03 - 0.60 Low Alk. Alkali Aggregate Reaction
Element Concentration Limits Effect
Raw Meal (%) Cem. (%)
MgO 0.50 – 4.00 5 – 6 Expansion
Standards
SO3 0.04 – 1.06 2.3 – 4 Volatilisation
Standards Setting behaviour
Emission
K2O 0.01 – 1.40 0.6 Volatilisation
Na2O 0.03 – 0.60 Low Alk. Alkali Aggregate Reaction
ElementConcentration Limits Effect Raw Meal (%) Cem. (%) P2O5 0.03 - 0.50 appr. 1.0 Reduces  early strength Cl 0.01 - 0.2 0.05 - 0.1 Volatilisation in several Corrosion Standards F 0.00 - 0.24 Flux Increased setting time
Element Concentration Limits Effect
Raw Meal (%) Cem. (%)
P2O5 0.03 – 0.50 appr. 1.0 Reduces early strength
Cl 0.01 – 0.2 0.05 – 0.1 Volatilisation
in several Corrosion
Standards
F 0.00 – 0.24 Flux
Increased setting time
ElementConcentration Effect Raw Meal (%) TiO2 0.10 - 0.47 Flux Retards init. setting Increases strength Cr2O3 0.01 - 0.05 “Chromium Eczema” Colour Mn2O3 0.03 - 0.83 Colour
Element Concentration Effect
Raw Meal (%)
TiO2 0.10 – 0.47 Flux
Retards init. setting
Increases strength
Cr2O3 0.01 – 0.05 “Chromium Eczema”
Colour
Mn2O3 0.03 – 0.83 Colour

Effects of Environmentally Relevant Compounds

CompoundConcentr. Effect Raw Meal Pyritic Sulfur 0 - 0.8 % Emissions (10-20% - SO2) Organic Carbon 0.05 - 0.7 % Emissions (1-10 % - Volatile Org. Carbon) Ammonium 20-500 ppm Emissions - Ammoniac - Aerosol (NH4Cl, NH4NO3, …) - NOx
Compound Concentr. Effect
Raw Meal
Pyritic Sulfur 0 – 0.8 % Emissions
(10-20% – SO2)
Organic Carbon 0.05 – 0.7 % Emissions
(1-10 % – Volatile
Org. Carbon)
Ammonium 20-500 ppm Emissions
– Ammoniac
– Aerosol (NH4Cl, NH4NO3, …)
– NOx

Assessment of Raw Materials Based on Mineralogical Characteristics :

  • Mineral

-Minerals are the physically and chemically homogeneous, naturally occurring solid components of the earth.

  There are about 4000 mineral  species known.

  Minerals are crystalline.

  • Crystal

-Crystals are homogeneous solids, in which the atoms are arranged in a regularly repeating pattern.

  • Rock

-Rocks are aggregates of minerals.

Mineralogical Composition of Raw Mixes:

CarbonatesCalcite CaCO3 Aragonite CaCO3 Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 Magnesite MgCO3 Siderite FeCO3 Silicates Quartz SiO2 Feldspars e.g. (K,Na)AlSi3O8 Micas e.g. K2Al4[Si6Al2O20](OH,F)4 Clay Minerals e.g. Al4[Si4O10](OH)8 Amphiboles e.g. Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 Pyroxenes e.g. Ca2[Si2O6] Olivine (Mg,Fe)2[SiO4]
Carbonates Calcite CaCO3
Aragonite CaCO3
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite MgCO3
Siderite FeCO3
Silicates Quartz SiO2
Feldspars e.g. (K,Na)AlSi3O8
Micas e.g. K2Al4[Si6Al2O20](OH,F)4
Clay Minerals e.g. Al4[Si4O10](OH)8
Amphiboles e.g. Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
Pyroxenes e.g. Ca2[Si2O6]
Olivine (Mg,Fe)2[SiO4]
calcite
calcite
quartz
quartz

Mineralogical Composition of Raw Mixes

OxidesHematite Fe2O3 Magnetite Fe3O4 Hydroxides Gibbsite Al(OH)3 Goethite FeO(OH) Sulfides Pyrite FeS2 Sulfates Gypsum CaSO4 x 2 H2O Anhydrite CaSO4
Oxides Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4
Hydroxides Gibbsite Al(OH)3
Goethite FeO(OH)
Sulfides Pyrite FeS2
Sulfates Gypsum CaSO4 x 2 H2O
Anhydrite CaSO4

Properties of Clay Minerals

Sheet Structure:   Presence of interlayered exchangeable ions and water

Exploitation   Methods

Preparation, Handling  Stickiness, Coating

Slurry Properties  Water Content, Rheology

Raw Meal Properties  Moisture Content, Nodulisability

Burning Behaviour  Burnability

Mineral Content, Grain Size

Reactivity of Minerals, Coating,

Dust Formation,Volatility of Alkalis

Special Products  Expansion Properties

Hardness of abundant minerals (Mohs)

MineralMohs scale Valuation Quartz 7 Feldspar 6 "hard" Pyroxene 6 minerals Amphibole 6 Calcite 3 Dolomite 3.5 Mica 3 "soft" Chlorite 2 – 3 minerals Clay minerals 2
Mineral Mohs scale Valuation
Quartz 7
Feldspar 6 “hard”
Pyroxene 6 minerals
Amphibole 6
Calcite 3
Dolomite 3.5
Mica 3 “soft”
Chlorite 2 – 3 minerals
Clay minerals 2

Assessment of Raw Materials Based on Petrographic Characteristics:

Based on Petrographic Characteristics
Based on Petrographic Characteristics

Rock Characteristics

  • Mineral Assemblage: Types of minerals present
  • Texture and Structure

-Spacial distribution of minerals

-Form of minerals

-Size distribution of minerals and pores

-Orientation of minerals and pores

  • Consolidation

Physical Rock Properties

  • Density and Porosity
  • Water Absorption, Moisture
  • Compressive Strength
  • Elasticity
  • Cleavability
  • Hardness
  • Crushability
  • Abrasivity
  • Grindability
  • Reactivity under increasing temperature

Raw Materials Assessment – Summary

  • Chemical Composition

-Main classes of raw materials?

-Main elements?

-Most critical minor elements

  • Chemical Composition

-Main classes of raw materials?

-Main elements?

-Most critical minor elements

  • Rock Properties

-Technical properties related to mineralogical composition, grain size, porosity, and solidification of a rock?

if you have any questions

please contact us at : project20062015@gmail.com

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