Precalciner principles|types|Manufacturers|Models

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Principle of Precalciners , Precalciner types , Main Feature of Precalciner , advantages of Precalcination

 

Learning Objectives Precalciners

 

  • Understand the principle  of precalcination.
  • Know the basic precalciner types
  • Know the main features of the various precalciner types
  • Know the advantages of precalcination
  • Understand the principle of low NOx precalciners
  • Know possibilities and limits of lump fuel in precalciners

Precalciners: Content

Content

  • Principle and theoretical aspects
  • Precalciner design
  • ILC precalciners
  • Pre-combustion chambers
  • Low NOx precalciners
  • Solid AFR in PC: priority and new solutions
  • Optimization possibilities
  • Main Benefits of Precalciner Technology

Energy Balance of Process Steps for Clinker Burning

Energy Balance of Process Steps for Clinker Burning
Energy Balance of Process Steps for Clinker Burning

AT (Air Through) and AS (Air Separate)

Definitions:

PA = Primary Air
SA = Secondary Air
TA = Tertiary Air

AT (Air Through) and AS (Air Separate)
AT (Air Through) and AS (Air Separate)

Precalciner – Preheater Arrangements

Precalciner – Preheater Arrangements
Precalciner – Preheater Arrangements

Comparison of Calciner Arrangements

Comparison of Calciner Arrangements
Comparison of Calciner Arrangements

Requirements I

  • Process:
    High calcination degree
    Good control of calcination degree
    No material drop-out (meal, ashes etc)
    No build-ups on walls
    Simple and rapid start-up procedure
    Forgiving operating behaviour
    Flexibility regarding fuel ratio BZ / PC
    Safe regarding equipment overheating
    Minimum primary air requirement
    Minimum pressure drop
  • Combustion:
    High burnout degree of fuels
    Best mixing of air (O2) with fuel
    Instant ignition of all fuels
    Direct return of fuel residues to kiln
    Optimum combustion monitoring / control
  • Fuels:
    Suitable for all fuel types (high flexibility)
    Insensitive to changes of mix of fuels
    Suitable for low reactivity and toxic fuels
  • Emissions:
    Reduction of pollutants from BZ
    No (low) generation of pollutants in PC firing
    Possibility for SNCR
  • Tertiary Air System:
    No dust deposits and dust cycles
    No hot dust handling
    Reliable O2-control for BZ and PC firing
  • Design:
    Easy integration in preheater
    Stepwise upgrading possible

Precalciner Control

  • Via Fuel Rate
    Normally 45% to 60% of total fuel
  • According to Calcination Degree
    of bottom cyclone hot meal (via LOI);
    Normally 85% to 95% apparent calcination degree
  • According to Gas Temperature at exit of bottom cyclone;
    Normally 840°C to 890°C

True and Apparent Calcination Degree

  • True calcination degree:
    Degree to which the calcination is completed, i.e. extent to which the CO2 is dissociated from the CaCO3.
    Extremes: Raw meal 0%    (LOI=35%)
    Clinker  100%    (LOI= 0%)
  • Apparent calcination degree:
    The calcination degree determined from a hot meal sample taken from the meal duct of the bottom cyclone
True and Apparent Calcination Degree
True and Apparent Calcination Degree

O2 Control for PC/BZ: Tertiary Air Damper

O2 Control for PC/BZ: Tertiary Air Damper
O2 Control for PC/BZ: Tertiary Air Damper

O2 Control for PC/BZ: Kiln Riser Orifice

O2 Control for PC/BZ: Kiln Riser Orifice
O2 Control for PC/BZ: Kiln Riser Orifice

Precalciner Elements

  • Long tubes “gooseneck type”
  • Large volume “vessel type”
  • Tertiary air frontal impact
  • Tertiary air tangential inlet
  • Orifice
  • Bends, curves and vessels
  • Multiple burners
  • Hot spot with and without control
  • Precombustion chamber

Standard Precalciners In-Line and Off-Line AT

FLS, KHD, KSL, Polysius

In-Line Calciners I

Polysius PREPOL gooseneck type
Polysius PREPOL
gooseneck type

In-Line Calciners II

FLS ILC controlled hot spot
FLS ILC
controlled hot spot

Pre-Combustion Chambers

RSP (Technip), FCB, Polysius, FLS

Calciners with Precombustion Chambers I

Calciners with Precombustion Chambers I
Calciners with Precombustion Chambers I

Calciners with Precombustion Chambers II

Polysius PREPOL MSC (Multi Stage Combustion)

KHD PYROCLON Low NOx-Topair

 

FLS SLC-D Downdraft (~2000
FLS SLC-D
Downdraft (~2000
Low NOx Precalciners
Low NOx Precalciners

 

FLS, KHD, Polysius a.o.

Precalciners for Lump Fuels(Tires etc): Future Development

PC for Solid AFR: FLS Hot Disc

PC for Solid AFR: FLS Hot Disc
PC for Solid AFR: FLS Hot Disc

PC for Solid AFR: BC-Lafarge AFR Ram

Ash Grove Controlled Ram for AFR modules
Ash Grove
Controlled Ram for AFR modules

Precalciner Video Animation

Tire Skewer for  Cement Kilns

Dimensioning Criteria for Precalciners

Dimensioning Criteria for Precalciners
Dimensioning Criteria for Precalciners

Main Benefits of Precalciner Technology

Main Benefits of Precalciner Technology
Main Benefits of Precalciner Technology

 

 

 

 

 

 

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