# Category Archives: Process , Operation and Important Formulas

#### Sensible Heat of Solids, Liquids and Gases

Sensible Heat of Solids, Liquids and Gases The following specific heats are average values between the temperature T and the reference temperature of 20°C. So the calculation of the sensible heat difference between two temperatures is as follows: Average Sensible Heat Cp of Solids [kJ/kg K] Average Sensible Heat cpof Gases [kJ/Nm3K] Average […]

Continue reading#### Environmental Calculation Formulas

Environmental Calculation Formulas Water Dew Point The water dew point temperature in a gas stream can be calculated as Acid Dew Point The acid dew point temperature for SO2/SO3 in a gas stream can be calculated as: Cooling Water Injection for Gas Cooling The required amount of cooling water for gas cooling can […]

Continue reading#### Calculation Formulas for Process Fans

Calculation Formulas for Process Fans Electrical Power Requirement for Fan The required electrical power can be calculated as: Total Pressure Increase (Rough Estimation) The total pressure increase p of a fan can be calculated as: Influence of Fan Speed on Volume flow, Static Pressure and Power Consumption: The volume flow depends on the fan speed […]

Continue reading#### Main Burner Calculation Formulas

Main Burner Calculation Formulas Thermal Power (from Production) The thermal power of the main burner can be calculated from production and heat consumption: Thermal Power (from Fuels) The thermal power of the main burner can be alternatively calculated from fuels: Specific Axial Impulsion of Burner The specific axial impulsion of the primary air can […]

Continue reading#### Holcim Formulas For Process Engineers to Audit your Work

Miscellaneous Formulas Ideal Gas Conversion The formula below is used to convert volumes of ideal gases from normal conditions (0°C, 1’013 mbar) to the volumes Vactat actual gas conditions (T, p) in the process. Barometric Pressure The average barometric pressure p at a plant altitude (above sea level) can be calculated using the following approximation formula. Air […]

Continue reading#### Kiln/Cooler Calculation Formulas

Kiln/Cooler Calculation Formulas Material Residence Time in Kiln The retention time of the material in a dry rotary kiln can be determined with the formula from Duda Cement Data Book: Material Filling Degree in Kiln Clinker Cooler Exit Temperature The achievable clinker temperature at the cooler exit with a given cooling air volume VAir […]

Continue reading#### Combustion Engineering Calculation Formulas

Combustion Engineering Calculation Formulas When doing calculations on cement kilns it is usual to work with specific quantities referred to 1 kg of clinker. Therefore the fuel consumption is expressed as q in MJ/kg cli and the kiln gas volume as VKiln gas in Nm3/kg cli. The cement kiln exhaust gas results from the following […]

Continue reading#### Essential Kiln Chemistry Figures for Professionals

Essential Kiln Chemistry Figures for Professionals Sulfur volatility in kiln: Alkali-sulfur ratio in clinker: Maximum sulfur content in clinker : Maximum chlorine input: Apparent decarbonation of the hotmeal: Coating tendency AW: Sulfur and Chlorine in Hot meal of SP/PC Kilns For more information about Cement kiln operation please […]

Continue reading#### Chapter 3.3 Kiln System Operations in Cement Manufacturing by Gerald L. Young and F. M. Miller

Chapter 3.3 Kiln System Operations in Cement Manufacturing by Gerald L. Young and F. M. Miller In the real world, a typical cement plant operates successfully by accomplishing the following processing steps: Mining carefully selected raw materials Precisely proportioning the raw materials together to achieve the desired chemical mix Grinding the raw materials to the […]

Continue reading#### Temperatures from raw mix to clinker

Temperatures from raw mix to clinker a picture might be better than thousand words if you have any questions please don’t hesitate to contact us.

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