20 MOST IMPORTANT Kiln & COOLER Performance & Efficiency FORMULAS WITH EXAMPLE AND REFERENCE FIGURES

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20 MOST IMPORTANT Kiln & COOLER Performance & Efficiency FORMULAS WITH EXAMPLE AND REFERENCE FIGURES

 

 

KILN Degree of filling

PClinker production, tpd
DeffBurning zone effective diameter, mts
nKiln speed, rpm
sKiln slope, %

 

Thermal loading or Burning zone loading

FFuel rate in kiln, kg/hr
NCVNet calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2

 

PClinker production, tpd
HSpecific heat consumption in kiln, kcal/kg-clinker
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2

 

Volumetric loading

PClinker production, tpd
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2
LKiln length, mts

Material residence time in kiln

LKiln length, mts
DeffBurning zone effective diameter, mts
nKiln speed, rpm
sKiln slope, %

Clinker residence time in cooler

ACooler grate cross-sectional area, m2
PsStatic pressure at clinker droping area, mmWg
PClinker production, tpd

True CO2 in kiln exit gas

 

CO2Kiln exit gas CO2, vol%
CO2Kiln exit gas CO, vol%
O2Kiln exit gas O2, vol%

Excess air

O2O2 content in gas, vol%
CO2CO2 content in gas, vol%

Radiation heat losses

TRadiating body temperature, K
tAmbient air temperature, K

Convection heat losses

Forced convection heat losses

%Ash absorption in clinker

CCCoal consumption, tph
AshAsh content in fuel (as fired basis), %
PClinker production, tph

Raw Mix:Clinker ratio

(dust to silo)

%AA%Ash absorption, %
LOILoss on ignition of raw mix, %
DLDust losses from preheater, %

Theoretical heat required to produce 1 kg of clinker Clinkerisation heat (including Heat of combustibles)

CaCO3CaCO3 content in kiln feed, %
RMCKKiln feed:Clinker ratio, –
MgCO3MgCO3 content in kiln feed, %
LOILOI content in kiln feed, %
Al2O3Al2O3 content in clinker, %
CH2OWater of crystalisation in kiln feed, %
SiO2SiO2 content in clinker, %
Fe2O3Fe2O3 content in clinker, %
K2OK2O content in clinker, %
Na2ONa2O content in clinker, %
CCarbon content in kiln feed, %
SSulphur as pyrites in kiln feed, %

False air w.r.t. mix (based on O2 analysis)

Cooler Loading

 

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