Kiln Performance & Efficiency Formulas

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Kiln Performance & Efficiency Formulas

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Kiln Performance & Efficiency
S.DescriptionSymbolFormulaExample
No.
1Degree of fillingDF3.2 * PP5500
%Deff 3 * n * sDeff4.15
PClinker production, tpdn3.8
DeffBurning zone effective diameter, mtsS4
nKiln speed, rpmDF16.20
sKiln slope, %Target14-16
2Thermal loadingTLFormula-1F10000
orGcal/hr/m2F * NCVNCV6500
Burning zone loadingA * 1000 * 1000A13.52
FFuel rate in kiln, kg/hrTL4.81
NCVNet calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuelTarget4.0-5.0
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2
Formula-2P5500
P * HH280
A * 24 * 1000A13.52
PClinker production, tpdTL4.75
HSpecific heat consumption in kiln, kcal/kg-clinkerTarget4.0-5.0
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2
3Volumetric loadingVLPP5500
tpd/m3A * LA13.52
PClinker production, tpdL68
ABurning zone cross-sectional area, m2VL5.98
LKiln length, mtsTarget5.0-5.5
4Material residence time in kilnRTK19 * LL68
minDeff * n * sDeff4.15
LKiln length, mtsn3.8
DeffBurning zone effective diameter, mtsS4
nKiln speed, rpmRTK20.5
sKiln slope, %Target20-25
5Clinker residence time in coolerRTC1.55 * A * PsA100
(Empirical relationship fromminPPs700
F.L. Smidth)ACooler grate cross-sectional area, m2P5500
PsStatic pressure at clinker droping area, mmWgRTC19.7
PClinker production, tpdTarget20-25
6True CO2 in kiln exit gasTCO2100 * ( CO2 + CO )CO236.5
vol%100 + ( 1.89 * CO ) – ( 4.78 * O2 )CO0.002
CO2Kiln exit gas CO2, vol%O24.2
CO2Kiln exit gas CO, vol%TCO245.7
O2Kiln exit gas O2, vol%Target
7Excess airEA79 * O2O22.8
%0.21 * ( 100 – CO2 ) – O2CO226.5
O2O2 content in gas, vol%EA17.5
CO2CO2 content in gas, vol%Target10-15
8Radiation heat lossesRHL4 * 10-8 * ( T4 – t4 )T517
kcal/hr/m2TRadiating body temperature, Kt305
tAmbient air temperature, KRHL2512
Target
9Convection heat lossesCHL80.33 * ( ( T + t ) / 2 )-0.724 * ( T – t )1.333T443
kcal/hr/m2TRadiating body temperature, Kt308
tAmbient air temperature, KCHL760
Target
10Forced convection heat lossesFCHL28.03 * ( ( T + t ) / 2 )-0.351 * v0.805 * D-0.195 * ( T – t )T525
(when wind speed > 3.0 m/s)kcal/hr/m2TRadiating body temperature, Kt302
tAmbient air temperature, Kv5
vWind speed, m/sD4.15
DRadiating body diameter, mtsFCHL2088
Target
11%Ash absorption in clinker%AACC * AshCC26
%PAsh15
CCCoal consumption, tphP208
AshAsh content in fuel (as fired basis), %%AA1.88
PClinker production, tphTarget
12Raw Mix:Clinker ratioRMCK100 – %AA%AA1.74
(dust to kiln)100 – LOILOI35.58
%AA%Ash absorption, %RMCK1.525
LOILoss on ignition of raw mix, %Target
13Raw Mix:Clinker ratioRMCS( 100 – %AA ) * 100%AA1.74
(dust to silo)( 100 – LOI ) * ( 100 – DL )LOI35.5
%AA%Ash absorption, %DL8.1
LOILoss on ignition of raw mix, %RMCS1.658
DLDust losses from preheater, %Target
14Heat of reactionHR( 4.282 * CaCO3 * RMCK ) + ( 3.085 * MgCO3 * RMCK )CaCO375.1
orkcal/+ ( 222 * Al2O3 / ( 100 – LOI ) ) + ( 11.6 * CH2O * RMCK )RMCK1.53
Theoretical heat required tokg-clinker– ( 511.6 * SiO2 / ( 100 – LOI ) ) – ( 59 * Fe2O3 / ( 100 – LOI ) )MgCO31.6
produce 1 kg of clinker – ( 1000 * ( K2O + Na2O )  / ( 100 – LOI ) )LOI34.5
or– ( 79 * C * RMCK ) – ( 32 * S * RMCK )Al2O34.17
Clinkerisation heatCaCO3CaCO3 content in kiln feed, %CH2O1.05
RMCKKiln feed:Clinker ratio, –SiO213.47
(including Heat of combustibles)MgCO3MgCO3 content in kiln feed, %Fe2O32.41
LOILOI content in kiln feed, %K2O0.38
Al2O3Al2O3 content in clinker, %Na2O0.27
CH2OWater of crystalisation in kiln feed, %C0.2
SiO2SiO2 content in clinker, %S0.04
Fe2O3Fe2O3 content in clinker, %HR389
K2OK2O content in clinker, %Target
Na2ONa2O content in clinker, %
CCarbon content in kiln feed, %
SSulphur as pyrites in kiln feed, %
15False air w.r.t. mixFAMO( O2mix – O2gas ) * 100O2mix3.6
(based on O2 analysis)%21 – O2gasO2gas2.8
O2mixO2 content in mixture of gas, vol%FAMO4.4
O2gasO2 content in unmixed gas, vol%Target5-7
16False air w.r.t. gasFAGO( O2mix – O2gas ) * 100O2mix3.6
(based on O2 analysis)%21 – O2mixO2gas2.8
O2mixO2 content in mixture of gas, vol%FAGO4.6
O2gasO2 content in unmixed gas, vol%Target5-7
17False air w.r.t. mixFAMC( CO2gas – CO2mix ) * 100CO2mix32.1
(based on CO2 analysis)%CO2gasCO2gas34.5
CO2mixCO2 content in mixture of gas, vol%FAMC7.0
CO2gasCO2 content in unmixed gas, vol%Target5-7
18False air w.r.t. gasFAGC( CO2gas – CO2mix ) * 100CO2mix32.1
(based on CO2 analysis)%CO2mixCO2gas34.5
CO2mixCO2 content in mixture of gas, vol%FAMC7.5
CO2gasCO2 content in unmixed gas, vol%Target5-7

IF YOU WORK IN A CEMENT PLANT AND YOU NEED COURSES AND MANUALS LIKE THIS MANUAL AND BOOKS AND EXCEL SHEETS AND NOTES I SPENT 23 YEARS COLLECTING THEM YOU SHOULD CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THEM NOW 

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