Important Formulas for Process Engineers Cement industry
Ideal Gas Conversion
The formula below is used to convert volumes of ideal gases from normal conditions (0°C, 1’013 mbar) to the volumes V act at actual gas conditions (T, p) in the process
The average barometric pressure p at a plant altitude (above sea level) can be calculated using the following approximation formula.
Air Inleakage through Holes and Apertures
Air leakage through apertures (e.g. kiln inlet seal, kiln hood) can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation:
For ambient conditions of around 20°C and 1 bar (air density of 1.19 kg/m3) the above formula can be simplified as:
Source : Holcim