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# Important Formulas for Process Engineers Cement industry

## Ideal Gas Conversion

The formula below is used to convert volumes of ideal gases from normal conditions (0°C, 1’013 mbar) to the volumes V act at actual gas conditions (T, p) in the process

## Barometric Pressure

The average barometric pressure p at a plant altitude (above sea level) can be calculated using the following approximation formula.

## Air Inleakage through Holes and Apertures

Air leakage through apertures (e.g. kiln inlet seal, kiln hood) can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation:

For ambient conditions of around 20°C and 1 bar (air density of 1.19 kg/m3) the above formula can be simplified as:

**Source : Holcim **

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