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Q.No.1:  With the help of flow diagram explain the manufacture of Portland cement by Dry & wet process

Answer: The manufacture of cement consists of the following steps.

  1. Mixing of raw materials or slurry: An intimate mixture of finely ground limestone and clay (3:1) is made into thin slurry with water by any of the following methods.
    1. Dry process
    2. Wet process

Dry process: If the lime stone and clay are hard, then the dry process is used. in this process the lime stone is first broken into small pieces. it is then mixed with clay in the proper proportion (3:1) and finally pulverized to such a finesse that 90-95% passes through a 100 mesh sieve. Then the raw mix is fed to a rotary kiln.

Wet process: If lime stone and clay are soft, the wet process is preffered. In this process, the clay is washed with water in wash mill to remove the foreign materials, organic matters etc. the powdered limestone is then mixed with the clay paste in the proper proportion (3:1) and the two ingredients are finely ground and homogenized. in this process, the slurry contains about 40% of water. Now the slurry can be fed to rotary Kiln.


  1. Burning: The dry pulverized raw mixture or slurry is introduced into a rotary kiln which consists of an inclined steel rotating cylinder. 150-200 feet long and 10 feet in diameter lined with fire bricks. The water evaporates at the upper ends of kiln by means of hot gases. The Kiln rotates on its axis at the rate of ½ to 1 revolution per minute. As the Kiln rotates the charge slowly moves down-wards due to the rotary motion of the Kiln. Now the charge is heated by blast of air charged with coal dust is admitted. this produces a temperature range of 1500 to 1700 0C in step wise process as:
  2. At 750 0C the moisture is completely eliminated.
  3. At 1000 0C the limestone is completely decomposed to CaO.
  4. At 1500 to 1700 0C the mixture is partly fused and sintered and chemical combinations between lime, alumina, ferric oxide and silica.

The charge takes 2 to 3 hrs. to covers the journey in the Kiln.

Chemical reactions: in the rotary Kiln the chemical reactions can be divided into the following parts.

  1. Drying zone: In this zone temperature raises to maximum 750 0C so that entire moisture in the slurry gets evaporated. The clay is broken into Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3.

Al2O3  2SiO2 Fe2O3 2H2O à Al2O3 + 2SiO2 + Fe2O3 + 2H2O

  1. Calcinations zone: When the temperature raises at 1000 0C, the limestone is completely decomposed into CaO.

CaCO3 à CaO + CO2

  1. Reaction zone (Clinkering zone): when the temperature reaches about 16000C, the mixture is partly fused and chemical combinations between lime, alumina, ferric oxide and silica, resulting in the formation of calcium aluminates and silicates occur.

2CaO + SiO2 à 2CaO.SiO2 (di calcium silicate)

3CaO + SiO2 à 3CaO.SiO2 (Tri calcium silicate)

2CaO + Al2O3 à 2CaO. Al2O3(di calcium Aluminate)

3CaO + Al2O3 à 3CaO. Al2O3(tri calcium Aluminate)

4CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3à 4CaO. Al2O3 Fe2O3(Tetra calcium Aluminate)

The resulting product is known as cement clinkers and as it comes out into the cooler. The clinkers are very hot (1000 0C. The clinkers have the appearance of small greenish black or grey colored.


  1. Mixing of cement clinkers with gypsum: The cooled clinker is ground and almost 3% of gypsum is mixed with it in order to reduce the rate of setting. After the initial setting, Al2O3 which is a fast setting constituent of clinker reacts with gypsum to form the crystals of calcium sulpho aluminate.

3CaO. Al2O3 3(CaSO4.2H2O) + 2H2O à 3CaO. Al2O3 3CaSO42H2O + 6H2O

At the initial setting, gypsum removes the fast setting elements and hence the process of setting cement gets retarded and the results in better strength of the mass which sets.

Packing: The ground cement is stored in silos, from which it is fed to automatic packing machines. Each bag, usually, contains 50 kg of cement.


Flow-chart of Manufacturing of cement:


Q.No.2: Write the chemical composition and setting and hardening of cement.

Answer: Chemical composition of cement: The essential constituents are lime, silica and alumina. For a good quality of cement the following ratio should be maintained.

%SiO2 = 2.5 to 4.0


_____%CaO – %SO3____        = 1.9 to 2.

%SiO2 + %Al2O3 + Fe2O3

  1. The ratio of silica to alumina lies between 2.5 and 4.
  2. The ratio of calcium oxide to silica + alumina + ferric oxide should be close to 2.5 and 4.
  3. Total percentage of magnesia should be < 6%
  4. Total sulphur content should not be more than 2.75%
  5. The ratio of Alumina to Iron oxide should be close to 0.65
  6. Total loss on ignition shall not exceed 4%.


Setting and Hardening of Cement:

Cement has the property of setting to hard mass after being mixed with water which is called cement paste. After mixing with water, hydration reaction starts and the mass becomes hard and very resistant to pressure. This is called as the setting of cement. The first setting takes place within 24 hours. The subsequent hardening requires about a fortnight. Setting is defined as stiffening of the original plastic mass and hardening is development of strength due to crystallization. Both these processes are due to hydration and hydrolysis reactions.

  1. Initial setting: primarily the reactions involved are the hydration of calcium aluminates and calcium silicates which change into their colloidal gel. At the same time some calcium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide are formed as precipitates due to hydrolysis.

3CaO Al2O3 + 6H2O à 3CaO. Al2O3 .6H2O + 880 Kj/kg

4CaO Al2O3 Fe2O3 + 7H2O à 3CaO. Al2O3 .6H2O + 3CaO Fe2O3 H2O + 420 Kj/kg

3CaO Al2O3 + 3(CaSO4 + 2H2O à 3CaO Al2O3 3CaSO4 2H2O

Addition of gypsum removes the fast setting elements.

  1. Reaction takes place between 1 and 7 days:

Hydrolysis reaction: 3CaOSiO2 + H2à Ca (OH)2 + 2CaOSiO2

  1. Final setting (between 7 to 28 days): begins to hydrate and forms the hydrated colloidal gel of the composition.

2CaOSiO2 + XH2O à 2CaOSiO2 XH2O + 500Kj/kg

  1. Sequence of chemical reactions during setting and hardening of cement: when water is added to cement, its various constituents undergo hydration and crystallization at different rates.
    1. At first, hydration of tricalcium aluminate and tetra calcium aluminoferrite takes place.
    2. Next, the hydration of tricalcium silicate begins within 24 hours and gets completed in 7 days.
    3. The gel of aluminate begins to crystallize and at the same time, dicalcium silicate begins to hydrate in 7 to 28 days. Thus, the initial set of cement is due to the hydration of aluminate. The development of early-strength, between 1 to 7 days, is due to the hydration of tricalcium silicate and the further hydration of aluminate. The increase of strength, between 7 to 28 days, is due to hydration of dicalcium silicate and continued hydration of tricalcium silicates.

Q.No.3: a. Write a short note on Additives for cement.

  1. Write a note on type of Portland cement.

Answer: Additives for cement: Any material entering into concrete other than cement, water and aggregate is known as an admixture. Any material interground with the cement clinker is called an addition.

Admixtures are classified as under:

  1. Accelerators
  1. air-entrainment agents
  2. Retarders
  3. Water-repelling agents
  4. Workability agents
  5. Gas forming agents
  6. Pozzolanic materials
  7. Natural cementing materials
  8. Miscellaneous admixtures


  1. .Accelerators: These are added to increase the early strength development. Chemical accelerators commonly employed include common salt, CaCl2, some organic substances such as Trithanol amine, some soluble carbonates, silicates and fluosilicates.CaCl2 is most widely used accelerator.
  2. Air-entrainment agents: The action of air-entraining agents is similar to that of a foam or froth stabilizers. On account of favorable effects o air entrainment on workability and other constructions where durability is not a serious problem. Vinsol resin and Darex are the commonly used commercial air-entrainment agents which are introduced as ‘additions” during grinding of the clinkers.
  3. Retarders: These are used to offset the accelerating effect of temperature from hot weather concreting or hot-water flows in grouting, to prevent the premature stiffening of some cements, or to actually delay the stiffening under difficult placing conditions.
  4. Water-repelling agents:  These are used in 0.1 to 0.2% f the weight of the cement and are usually present in water-proofed Portland cements and many masonry cements. The commonly used water-repelling agents include soaps or other fatty acid compounds such as calcium-, ammonium-, aluminium-, or sodium stearates or oleates and petroleum oils or waxes.
  5. Workability agents: these are usually employed to offset deficiencies in grading that tend to produce harshness or segregation and Jeopardize successful placement under inaccessible difficult conditions. Bentonite clay and diatomaceous earth which are used up to 3 to 5% by weight of cement.
  6. Gas forming agents: Aluminium powder is the widely used gas-forming agent. It reacts with hydrating hydroxide in concrete to permeate the mass with minute hydrogen bubbles.
  7. Pozzolanic materials: The term “Pozzolanic” comes from “Pouzzoles”, a city near Naples where volcanic silico-aluminate calcium ash is found. Finely divided siliceous and aluminous substances for example, fly ash, volcanic ash, heat treated diatomaceous earths, heat treated raw clays and shale’s which are not cementitious in themselves, combine with hydrated lime and water to form stable compounds of cementitious value.
  8. Natural cementing materials: These are the natural cementing materials such as hydraulic lime, water-quenched blast furnace s-                            lag and lime. these are used up to 10 to 25% by weight of Portland cement.
  9. Miscellaneous admixtures: These include colouring pigments, integral floor hardeners, pore fillers and additives for resistance to wear and decrease of dusting.

Types of Portland cement

True Portland cement: 1. ordinary cement

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