Cement Kiln Firing Systems

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Cement Kiln Firing Systems

 

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To gather a basic understanding pertaining to :

  • Handling, preparation, dosing and transport of noble fuels
  • Required physical properties of fuels
  • Safety Considerations (Coal plant specific)

Firing Systems

Noble Fuels – Coal, Oil, Gas

-Fuel Preparation ( Firing Systems )

-Fuel Dosing ( Firing Systems )

-Transport to Burner ( Firing Systems )

-Injection into Kiln ( Burners and Flames )

-Combustion – Flame etc ( Burners and Flames )

Coal  Circuit classification

coal direct file - coal indirect file
coal direct fire – coal indirect fire

Dosing

Pfister Rotor Feed - Schenk Coriolis
Pfister Rotor Feed – Schenk Coriolis

Transport Criteria

  • Transport velocity : 28 – 32 m/s
  • Maximum length < 80 m

L > 80 m – staged diameter

L > 100 m – avoid

  • Only horizontal and vertical transport lines
  • Elbow design by Diversion Pots

Performance Check

Pressure fluctuations < 5 mbar near burner

Diversion Pot

Diversion Pot
Diversion Pot

Physical Properties – Fineness

Coal:

Rule of thumb:  % R90mm £ ½ * (% volatiles)

  % R200mm £ 2%

Petcoke:

Rule of thumb:  % R90mm £ 5%

% R200mm £ 1%

Mixture of coal and petcoke:

Example: 60% coal; 40% coke; coal with 20% volatiles

R90mm £ 0.6*0.5*20% + 0.4*5% £ 8%

R200mm £ 1%

Fuel Oil – Handling

Handling steps:

=Unloading

=Storage tank

=Preparation unit

=Burner platform
valve train

=Atomisation

coal handling steps
coal handling steps

Kinematic Viscosity – Fuel Oil

Kinematic Viscosity – Fuel Oil
Kinematic Viscosity – Fuel Oil

Natural Gas

Handling steps:

=Transfer station:
– Filtering
– Preheating
– Pressure reduction
– Safety shut off
– Flow rate
measuring

=Burner valve train:
– Pressure control
– Safety shut off
– Flow rate control
– Splitting of flow
– Quick shut off

natural gas handling steps
natural gas handling steps Pillard

Safety

combustible - oxygen - ignition
combustible – oxygen – ignition

After Effects – Coal Baghouse Explosion

After Effects – Coal Baghouse Explosion
After Effects – Coal Baghouse Explosion

Simplified Coal System

Simplified Coal System
Simplified Coal System

Actions : Items to consider

  • O2 limits in control system
  • CO monitoring (actual and rate of increase across filter)
  • False air checks carried out over mill system
  • Broken bag detector operational
  • Maintenance routines established and followed
  • Inertisation capacity sufficient
  • Monitoring of fineness
  • Explosion protection in place

Safety Measures for Coal Dust Silos

Safety Measures for Coal Dust Silos
Safety Measures for Coal Dust Silos

 

for more

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