Quarrying management course – DR Ahmed Mostafa Egypt ASEC
Geology and cement industry
GEOLOGY AND CEMENT INDUSTRY
I.1WHAT IS GEOLOGY?
Geology is, broadly speaking, the study of the Earth. It is split into several disciplines, including: Petrology (the study of rocks), Geophysics (the study of the Earth using physics), Paleontology (the study of fossils) and Mineralogy (the study of minerals). The main aim of geology is to understand how the Earth works; how mountains are built, how the oceans form, what dinosaurs looked like. The Earth is constantly changing, both inside and outside.
The atmosphere and water erode and weather rocks; collision of continents build mountain ranges; and new crust forms at the mid-ocean ridges. How do these processes relate to each other, and can we come up with a model to explain these things? Once we have such a model, the applications of geology become much simpler. Applications include the search for oil, gas, water and minerals; environmental studies; reconstructing the past environments of the Earth, which helps us with predicting the future.
Geology has been revolutionized by the introduction of the theory of plate tectonics. This theory explains a great deal of the things we see on the Earth’s surface and helps a great deal when trying to fit the pieces together. It is plate tectonics which provides a model in which to put the details. The Earth is made of three main layers: the lithosphere, the mantle and the core. This are split further, but this is beyond the scope of this tutorial. The lithosphere is divided into a series of plates which move around the surface of the Earth as dictated by plate tectonic theory. It is the lithosphere which is made of rock as we see it every day.
I.1LAYERS OF THE EARTH
The main three layers of the earth are the core, the mantle and the crust (Fig. 1). The core is the inner part of the earth, the crust is the outer part and between them is the mantle. The earth is surrounded by the atmosphere. Most of the rock of the earth‟s crust is composed of just eight elements. These elements are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The layers of the earth from the core to the crust in addition to the atmosphere, Hydrosphere and biosphere are shortly explained as follows:
I.1.1Core of the Earth
The inner part of the earth is the core. This part of the earth is about 2,900 km below the earth’s surface. The core is a dense ball of the elements iron and nickel. It is divided into two layers, the inner core and the outer core. The inner core – the center of earth – is solid and about 1,250 km thick. The outer core is so hot that the metal is always molten, but the inner core pressures are so great that it cannot melt, even though temperatures there reach 3700ºC. The outer core is about 2,200 km thick. Because the earth rotates, the outer core spins around the inner core and that causes the earth’s magnetism.
The layer above the core is the mantle. It begins about 10 km below the oceanic crust and about 30 km below the continental crust. The mantle is to divide into the inner mantle and the outer mantle. It is about 2,900 km thick and makes up nearly 80 percent of the Earth’s total volume The Earth’s mantle is composed of rocks that have higher concentrations of Mafic minerals (containing iron and magnesium) and lower in concentrations of the Felsic minerals (aluminum and silica) than the rocks
of Earth’s crust. The concentrations of the above elements therefore mean that the Earth’s mantle is composed of a series of minerals that are predominately calcium / iron / magnesium aluminum silicates. Such as Olivine and Pyroxene
The crust lays above the mantle and is the earth’s hard outer shell, the surface on which we are living. In relation with the other layers the crust is much thinner. It floats upon the softer, denser mantle. The crust is made up of solid material but these material is not everywhere the same. There is an Oceanic crust and a Continental crust. The first one is about 6-11 km thick and consists of heavy rocks, like basalt. The Continental crust is thicker than the Oceanic crust, about 30 km thick. It is mainly made up of light material, like granite.
The earth is surrounded by all kind of gases. This layer is called the earth’s atmosphere. Without these atmosphere life on earth isn’t possible. The atmosphere gives us air, water, warmth and is protecting us against harmful rays of the sun and against meteorites. This layer around the earth is a colorless, odorless, tasteless ‘sea’ of gases, water and fine dust. The atmosphere is made up of different layers with different qualities. It consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,93% argon, 0,03% carbon dioxide and 0,04% of other gases.
The Troposphere is the layer where the weather happens, above this layer is the Stratosphere. Within the Stratosphere is the Ozone layer, that absorbs the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. Above the Stratosphere is the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere – in which the Ionosphere – and the Exosphere. The atmosphere is about 800 km thick.
The hydrosphere is often called the “water sphere” as it includes all the earth’s water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater, and in the air. The hydrosphere interacts with, and is influenced by, all the other earth spheres. The water of the hydrosphere is distributed among several different stores found in the other spheres. Water is held in oceans, lakes and streams at the surface of the earth. Water is found in vapor, liquid and solid states in the atmosphere. The biosphere serves as an interface between the spheres enabling water to move between the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere as is accomplished by plant transpiration. The hydrologic cycle traces the movement of water and energy between these various stores and spheres.
The biosphere is the region of the earth that encompasses all living organisms: plants, animals and bacteria. It is a feature that distinguishes the earth from the other planets in the solar system. Another term sometimes used is ecosphere. The biosphere includes the outer region of the earth (the lithosphere) and the lower region of the atmosphere (the troposphere). It also includes the hydrosphere, the region of lakes, oceans, streams, ice and clouds comprising the earth’s water resources.
The biosphere extends from the bottom of the oceans to the highest mountaintops, a layer with an average thickness of about 20 km. The biosphere is a very tiny region on the scale of the whole earth, as to the thickness of the skin on an apple. The bulk of living organisms actually live within a smaller fraction of the biosphere, from about 500 meters below the ocean’s surface to about 6 km. above sea level.
I.3 CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND MINERALOGY
The branch of science that deals with the geometric forms of crystals. How to describe, classify, and measure such forms are the first questions of crystallography. Revealing the forces that made them and the activities within them are the modern directions of the field. Crystallography is essential to progress in the applied sciences and technology and developments in all materials areas, including metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, and polymers, as well as drug design. It is equally vital to progress in fundamental physics and chemistry, mineralogy and geology, and computer science, and to understanding of the dynamics and processes of living systems.
The external morphology of crystals reflects their growth rates in different directions. These directions remain constant during the course of the growth process, and are represented mathematically as the normals to sets of parallel planes that are imagined as being added on as growth proceeds. The faces that meet and define an edge belong to a zone, a zone being a set of planes that share one common direction, the zone axis. The invariance of interfacial angles, measured by rotation about an axis that is defined by the zone direction, was discovered in the seventeenth century.
Crystals are classifying into seven crystal systems (Figs. 2&3) according to their atomic lattice or structure. The crystal systems are cubic, tetragonal, trigonal, hexagonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic. The atomic lattice is a three dimensional network of atoms that are arranged in a symmetrical pattern. The shape of the lattice determines not only which crystal system the stone belongs to, but all of its physical properties and appearance.
A mineral is a naturally-occurring inorganic (there are some exceptions to this as coal and oil shale) crystalline solid (though mercury is regarded as a mineral) with a specific chemical composition and a characteristic internal regular geometric arrangement (Figs 4 & 5) of atoms, sometimes expressed as natural crystal faces. Minerals are made up of two or more elements.
There are 92 known natural elements on earth. There are about 3,000 different minerals in the world. A mineral: occurs naturally. Manmade substances are not considered a mineral. Examples of minerals: quartz, talc, feldspar, gypsum. Minerals have several important properties which help identify them:
- Color- not good indicator and depends on the exact chemistry.
- Streak – when ground up the mineral is always the same colo
- Luster – how light reflects from the mineral, g metallic luster
- Hardness – reliable It is compared to Moh’s scale (1812). Ten selected common minerals were used (Table 1) to describe hardness.
- Habit – the shape of the crystals, depends on the amount of growt
- Fracture – how the mineral breaks when not along a cleavage plane. While Cleavage – how the crystal breaks Cleavage planes are inherent planes of weakness.
A rock is an aggregate of one (such as quartzite) or more (such as granite) mineral particles formed through either crystallization of molten magma (igneous rocks), settling of particles (sedimentary rocks), or reheating and pressure applied to pre-existing rocks (metamorphic rocks), with no set chemical composition or atomic structure. A rock is composed of combinations of minerals, each mineral having its own chemical formula and crystalline structure. Rocks, like minerals, have never been alive. Granite is a good example of an intrusive igneous rock in which the different minerals are visible. Granite is composed of quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, and other combinations or ratios of minerals.
Igneous rocks get their name from the Latin word ignis, meaning “fire.” Igneous rock is formed by the melted rock from the interior of the earth, called magma, which has cooled and solidified. Magma can reach temperatures close to 1200°C. When magma appears on the surface of the earth, it is called lava. Igneous rock was formed either underground or above the ground. Sometimes magma is trapped in small pockets. These pockets of magma cool slowly underground and become igneous rock. When volcanoes erupt, the molten rock (now called lava) appears above ground, cools more quickly, and becomes another kind of igneous rock. The classification of igneous rocks are shown in Figs (6 & 7).
Sedimentary rocks make up about ¾ of the earth‟s crust. There are 3 classifications of sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks and are formed by the breakdown (both physical and chemical) of pre-existing rocks. These broken pieces of rock are called sediments. Sand at the beach, mud at the bottom of the pond, smooth pebbles in the stream bed are all sediments. These sediments are transported and then deposited into layers. The sediment layers become rock by the processes of compaction and cementation.
Biochemical or organic sedimentary rocks are formed when large numbers of living organisms, animal and/or plant die, pile up and are then compressed and cemented to form rock. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed by chemical precipitation. Water carrying minerals travels and the minerals are re-deposited, or precipitated, when the water evaporates. Stalactites and stalagmites in caves form this way. Shale, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rock is the home of very important resources such as ground water, coal, oil, and soil. The classification of sedimentary rocks is shown in Table ( 2 )
Metamorphic means “changed form.” If sedimentary and igneous rocks are subjected to intense pressures or extreme heat, they can be completely changed and become metamorphic rocks, which form while deeply buried within the earth’s crust. The process of metamorphism transforms them into denser, more compact rocks. New minerals are created either by rearrangement of mineral components or by reactions with fluids that enter the rocks. The classification of metamorphic rocks is shown in Table ( 3 )
The Rock Cycle
The rock cycle shows how the three rock types relate to each other (Fig. 8 ). The four processes: weathering, crystallization, lithification and metamorphism are the links between the rock types, sediment and magma (molten rock).
Weathering is the gradual wearing down of all rock types once they are exposed at the surface.
Crystallization is the cooling of magma to form an igneous rock.
Lithification is the transformation of loose sediment into a rock by a slight heating and/or cementation.
Metamorphism occurs when a rock is subjected to heat and pressure, transforming a rock, but not melting it. This can occur on any rock, even a metamorphic rock. The three different types of rocks are shown in Figs (9, 10 & 11).
I.5GEOLOGIC TIME PALEONTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY
- Geologic Time
The expression geologic time (Table 4) refers to the vast span from Earth’s beginnings to the present, about 4.6 billion years. To examine the history of Earth, one must discard most familiar ideas about time. Instead of thinking in terms of years, centuries, or even millennia, the most basic unit is a million years, and even that is rather small when compared with the four eons into which geologic time is divided.
Earth scientists’ knowledge of the first three eons is fairly limited. What they do know comes from a combination of absolute dating, mostly by the study of radioactive decay, and relative dating through the stratigraphic record of rock layers.
Geologic time is divided according to two scales. The more well-known of these is the geologic scale, which divides time into named groupings according to six basic units: eon, era, period, epoch, age, and chron. In addition, the chronostratigraphic scale identifies successive layers of rock with specific units of time.
As noted earlier, stratigraphy is the study of rock layers, or strata, beneath Earth’s surface, while chronostratigraphy is a subdiscipline devoted to studying the ages of rocks and what they reveal about geologic time. The chronostratigraphic scale likewise has six time units, analogous to those of the geologic scale: eonothem, era them, system, series, stage, and chronozone. For the most part, we will not be concerned with the chronostratigraphic terms in the present context.
Paleontologists study the fossilized remains of life, including vertebrate organisms such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and dinosaurs (vertebrate paleontology); invertebrate organisms such as ancient snails, clams, ammonites, foraminifera, and arthropods (invertebrate paleontology); and preserved plants such as leaf impressions and petrified wood (paleobotany). By studying fossilized organisms, ancient soils, geochemistry, and biochemistry, paleontologists are currently engaged in answering questions of global and regional climate change and investigating the anatomical and evolutionary changes of life over time.
Paleontology is a rich field, imbued with a long and interesting past and an even more intriguing and hopeful future. Many people think paleontology is the study of fossils. In fact, paleontology is much more. Paleontology is traditionally divided into various subdiscipline:
Micropaleontology: Study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group to which they belong.
Paleobotany: Study of fossil plants; traditionally includes the
study of fossil algae and fungi in addition to land plants. Palynology: Study of pollen and spores, both living and fossil, produced by land plants and protists.
Invertebrate Paleontology: Study of invertebrate animal fossils, such as mollusks, echinoderms, and others.
Vertebrate Paleontology: Study of vertebrate fossils, from primitive fishes to mammals.
Human Paleontology (Paleoanthropology): The study of
prehistoric human and proto-human fossils.
Taphonomy: Study of the processes of decay, preservation, and the formation of fossils in general.
Ichnology: Study of fossil tracks, trails, and footprints. Paleoecology: Study of the ecology and climate of the past, as revealed both by fossils and by other methods.
In short, paleontology is the study of what fossils (Fig. 12 ) tell us about the ecologies of the past, about evolution, and about our place, as humans, in the world. Paleontology incorporates knowledge from biology, geology, ecology, anthropology, archaeology, and even computer science to understand the processes that have led to the origination and eventual destruction of the different types of organisms since life arose. The exhibits that we have set up here are created by paleontologists.
I.5.1Stratigraphy (Stratigraphic Laws):
Stratigraphic Laws are basic principles that all geologists use in deciphering the spatial and temporal relationships of rock layers. These laws were developed in the 17th to 19th centuries based upon the work of Niels Steno, James Hutton and William Smith, among others. Stratigraphic laws (Fig. 13) include the following:
- Original Horizontality- All sedimentary rocks are originally deposited horizontally. Sedimentary rocks that are no longer horizontal have been tilted from their original position.”Strata either perpendicular to the horizon or inclined to the horizon were at one time parallel to the horizon.”Steno, 1669″
- Lateral Continuity- Sedimentary rocks are laterally continuous over large are As snow falls, it is not limited to the intersection of Main and Division streets but falls over a larger area. Sediments also “rain” down in a similar fashion such that sedimentary layers are laterally continuous over an area “Material forming any stratum were continuous over the surface of the Earth unless some other solid bodies stood in the way.”Steno, 1669”
- Superposition: “.At the time when any given stratum was being formed, all the matter resting upon it was fluid, and, therefore, at the time when the lower stratum was being formed, none of the upper strata existed (The layer below is older than the layer above)” Steno, 1669″.
- Cross-Cutting Relations:”If a body or discontinuity cuts across a stratum, it must have formed after that str” Steno, 1669.
- Law of Inclusions- This law states that rock fragments (in another rock) must be older than the rock containing the fragments
- Law of Faunal Succession- This law was developed by William “Strata” Smith who recognized that fossil groups were succeeded by other fossil groups through This allowed geologists to develop a fossil stratigraphy and provided a means to correlate rocks throughout the world.
I.6STRUCTURE AND TECTONICS
- Rock Outcrops
A rock outcrop (Figs. 14 & 15) is the part of a rock formation (sedimentary, metamorphic or basement rocks) that appears above land
,the exposed portion of such a stratum or vein. The cause could be erosion, tectonic, or man-made, or any combination of them.
I.6.1Horizontal Inclines and Vertical Beds
Stratification or bedding (Fig. 16 & 17) is the obvious large scale feature of sedimentary rocks. Each of the beds or strata is the result of a natural event in geologic history, such as a flood or storm. In a sedimentary sequence, the older beds are on the bottom, and the younger beds are on the top. This has come to be called the Principle of Superposition.
Tilted beds are shown on a geological map with a strike and dip
(Fig. 18 ) symbol. The components of attitude or orientation of a layer are:
- Strike: Compass direction of a horizontal line on bedding plane
- Dip direction: perpendicular to strike direction
- Dip angle: actual amount of tilt of the layer
- Geological Structures
Geological structure is the study of the permanent deformation and rock failure created by the changes in stress through geologic time. Tectonic processes are responsible for the discontinuity planes (fractures, faults, joints) that permeate rock masses controlling their strength, stress-strain characteristics and the transmission and storage of fluids.
Structures may be conveniently subdivided into two groups:
- Brittle structures-recording the brittle-elastic failure of rocks in the past. Faults and joints fall in this broad category.
- Ductile structures-preserving the permanent visco-plastic
deformation of rock throughout geologic time. Folds and metamorphic foliations are the expression of this type of structure.
Folds and faults are produced when rocks are subjected to pressure and have either deformed (folded) or fractured (faulted). Faults and folds may occur on all scales, from the microscopic to instances where the beds have been displaced many kilometers. Small-scale faults and folds within quarries may reflect the presence of nearby larger faults and folds with similar trends.
Fold structures where the youngest beds are preserved in the centre (core) of the fold are known as „synclines‟. Fold structures in which the oldest beds are preserved in the core of the fold are known as
„anticlines. Faults exposed in a quarry, this high-angle, „normal‟ fault
shows displacement of bedding. An unconformity is the name given to a major gap in the geological sequence where there are big differences in the beds below and above the break in sedimentation.
In synclines and anticlines (Fig. 19), the axial plane is the plane of symmetry passing through the apex of the fold. The line of intersection of the fold apex and the horizontal plane is called the axis of the fold.
- Anticlines-upfolded forms, results in older rocks becoming enclosed within younger strata (Fig. 20).
- Synclines-downfolded forms, results in younger rocks becoming enclosed within older strata (Fig. 20).
- Symmetrical folds – both limbs of the fold dipping at same angle
away from fold axis
- A symmetrical folds – both limbs of the fold not dipping at same angle away from fold axis
- Overturned folds – condition in which one limb of fold has been
tilted beyond vertical
- Plunging folds– axis of fold is tilted (Fig.21).
- Domes- more or less circular equivalent of anticline, oldest rocks exposed in center of dome
- Structural Basin– more or less circular equivalent of syncline,
youngest rocks exposed in center of dome.
If the fold-axis is inclined to the horizontal, the “dip” of the axis is called the plunge. Plunging folds are the rule rather than the exception. Folds with a horizontal axis are a two-dimensional idealization. In nature, folds are symmetric or asymmetric plunging structures (Fig. 22, 23 & 24).
Faults are planar discontinuity surfaces along which there has been significant displacement in shear. In common with all planar structures, a fault has a strike and dip. A fault is a fracture surface within the earth on which slip or displacement has taken place. The total displacement on a fault may be less than a few centimeters or may be measured in hundreds of kilometers. Large displacements are commonly achieved by a series of sudden slips associated with earthquakes, but under some conditions involving slow slip, called creep.
The three fundamental fault types are normal, reverse, and strike-slip. Normal faults (Fig. 25 & 27) involve a dipping fracture surface on which the block above the fault plane, the hanging-wall block, is downthrown with respect to the block below, called the footwall block. Normal faults are common in regions of crustal extension. In contrast, reverse fault displacements, which are common in regions of compression, are such that the block above the fracture surface is uplifted with respect to the block below. Strike-slip faults (Fig. 26) generally involve no vertical motion, but instead are produced by two blocks that are sliding laterally past one another. The sense of lateral motion can be right lateral (dextral) or left lateral (sinistral).
In normal faulting (Fig. 25 & 27), the largest (most compressive) stress is vertical. The smallest and intermediate stresses are horizontal. The shear fracture (fault) makes an angle of less than 45 degrees with the major (most compressive) principal stress direction. In reverse faulting (Fig. 27), the smallest (least compressive) stress is vertical. The largest and intermediate stresses are horizontal. The shear fracture (fault) makes an angle of less than 45 degrees with the major (most compressive) principal stress direction. In strike-slip faulting, the intermediate stress is vertical. The largest and smallest stresses are horizontal. The shear fracture (fault) makes an angle of less than 45 degrees with the major (most compressive) principal stress direction, in this case again the horizontal. There is no vertical movement.
Unconformity (Fig. 28 & 29) is a surface between successive strata representing a missing interval in the geologic record of time, and produced either by an interruption in deposition or by the erosion of depositionally continuous strata followed by renewed deposition. The unconformity represents an interval of geologic time, called the hiatus, during which no deposition occurred and erosion removed preexisting rock. The result is a gap, in some cases encompassing millions of years, in the stratigraphic record. There are four kinds of unconformable relations:
Nonconformity :underlying rocks are not stratified, such as massive crystalline rocks formed deep in the Earth.
- Angular unconformity :underlying rocks are stratified but were deformed before being eroded, resulting in angular discordance; this was the first type to be recognized; the term unconformity was originally used to describe the geometric relationship between the underlying and overlying bedding plan
- Disconformity: underlying strata are undeformed and parallel to overlying strata, but separated by an evident erosion surface.
- Paraconformity: strata are parallel and the erosion surface is subtle, or even indistinguishable from a simple bedding plane
geophysics, study of the structure, composition, and dynamic changes of the earth, its atmosphere, hydrosphere and magnetosphere, based on the principles of physics. The term was probably first used in Germany, where it appeared in scientific writings of the mid 19th century. Geophysics, which embraces the concepts, data, and methods of various other sciences, is very broad in scope. For example, geology, meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, and seismology all enter into geophysical studies, with many of them overlapping (e.g., meteorology
and oceanography in the study of possible global warming).
Most techniques for locating subsurface petroleum, mineral deposits, and water supplies are reliant upon applied geophysics, including the use of seismic and electrical measurements at shallow depths and gravimetric, magnetic, and radiometric surveys at ground stations and in airplanes. Information is then correlated with visible surface features, subsurface conditions are inferred, and boreholes are drilled to determine the extent and richness of promising areas.
Geophysics also is used to understand the interactions of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, including how certain anomalies in the ocean’s circulation affect the atmosphere. Magnetosphere studies in geophysics concentrate on the magnetic field around the earth. Other geophysical studies are more specific, i.e. selenophysics, or the physics of the moon. Recent flyby spacecraft have accumulated extensive physical data, allowing geophysicists to theorize, by analogy to geophysical earth studies, about the underlying structures, atmospheres, and magnetospheres of other planets and satellites in the solar system.
Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake effects, such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes (such as explosions). A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. Fig. (30) shows some applications of geophysical techniques.
- QUARRYING INTRODUCTION
Quarrying is a form of surface mining used when the rock is close to the surface of the land. This is used for stone or rock to make buildings. The quarry is an open pit mine and is less deep than other kinds. The way that quarrying is done depends on the rock that the miners are trying to get out of the ground and what the rock will be used for after it‟s mined. For example, if they want to get an ingredient of cement, they will use explosives to break the rock into small bits. This is okay because cement needs to be in small pieces when it’s sold. If they want larger pieces of granite for kitchen countertops, the miners will drill holes in the rock, long distances apart. Dynamite will be packed into these and the blast will separate large slabs of granite that will be „sliced‟ with wire saws.
There are other ways to quarry such as drilling holes, blasting dynamite to make an opening, and then blowing in compressed air [or water] that splits the rock. One of the biggest problems for quarries is drainage. Many quarries are dug in hillsides so that water can drain better. Water flows into the quarry from the surface and from the ground. The quarry needs to be pumped out to get rid of it. This adds to the costs of quarrying the rock.
Natural “primary” raw materials such as limestone/chalk, marl, and clay/shale are extracted from quarries which, in most cases, are located close to the cement plant. After extraction, these raw materials are crushed at the quarry site and transported to the cement plant for intermediate storage, homogenization and further preparation.
Corrective materials such as bauxite, iron ore or sand may be required to adapt the chemical composition of the raw mix to the requirements of the process and product specifications. The quantities of these corrective materials are usually low compared to the huge mass flow of the main raw materials. To a limited extent, “secondary” (or “alternative”) raw materials originating from industrial sources are used to substitute for natural raw materials and correctives.
In the same way as traditional raw materials, they may be fed to the quarry crusher or – more commonly directly to the cement plant‟s raw material preparation system. Today, modern computerized methods are available to evaluate the raw material deposits and to optimize the long-term and short-term production schedule.
Cement is a solid material made of clinker, gypsum and other additives. It is mainly used to form concrete, a conglomerate of cement, water, fine sand and coarse aggregates, widely used for civil engineering constructions. Cement has a strong hydraulic binder power. Reacting with water it becomes a hard and durable material in a few days.
Cement: is a material with adhesive and cohesive properties which make it capable of bonding minerals fragments into a compact whole. For constructional purposes, the meaning of the term “cement” is restricted to the bonding materials used with stones, sand, bricks, building stones, etc.
The cements of interest in the making of concrete have the property of setting and hardening under water by virtue of a chemical reaction with it and are, therefore, called hydraulic cement. The name “Portland cement” given originally due to the resemblance of the color and quality of the hardened cement to Portland stone – Portland island in England.
The manufacture of cement is a two-phase process. Clinker is first produced in a kiln system from calcareous (limestone, chalk or marl) and argillaceous (clay or shale) materials, with addition, in some cases, of small amounts of corrective materials (sand, waste bauxite, iron ore). Various fossil fuels and waste fuels are used in this process to reach the reaction temperature of 1450 °C. Secondly, the clinker is ground with Calcium Sulphates and with industrial processes wastes such as blast furnace slag, limestone, natural and industrial pozzolanic materials, e.g. fly ash, silica fume and burnt shale.
Portland cement consists of compounds of lime mixed with silica, alumina, and iron oxide. The lime is obtained from a calcareous raw material and the other oxides from an argillaceous (clayey) material, and the two are then mixed in the required proportions. Additional raw materials such as sand, iron oxide, and bauxite may be used in smaller quantities to get the desired composition.
The commonest calcareous raw materials are limestone and chalk, but others, such as coral or shell deposits, are also used. Clays, shales, slates, and estuarine muds are the common argillaceous raw materials. Marl, a compact calcareous clay, and cement rock contain both the calcareous and argillaceous components in proportions that sometimes approximate cement compositions.
Another raw material is blast-furnace slag, which consists mainly of lime, silica, and alumina and is mixed with a calcareous material of high lime content. Kaolin, which contains little iron oxide, is used as the argillaceous component for white Portland cement. Industrial wastes, such as fly ash and calcium carbonate from chemical manufacture, are other possible raw materials, but their use is small compared with that of the natural materials. The magnesia content of raw materials must be low because the permissible limit in Portland cement is 4 to 5 percent.
II.1 WORLD CEMENT PRODUCTION
The world cement production in 2010 based on USGS Mineral Program Cement Report is shown in Table ( 5 ). The top three countries; China, India and USA, didn’t change in the last 5 years. The most progressing countries in terms of ranking are Turkey (10th to 4th), Brazil (13th to 5th) and Vietnam (17th to 9th ). All top European cement producing countries except Turkey loosed their rankings (Spain, Russia, Italy, Germany and France), as a result of the global financial crisis.
II.1 CEMENT RAW MATERIALS
- Calcareous and argillaceous components
Limestones and marbles are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks containing CaCO3 (calcite or aragonite). Primary and secondary admixtures in limestones are dolomite, silicates, phosphates, etc. Limestones originated through chemical, biological and mechanical processes or their combinations.
Limestones of different origins show variations in physical characteristics, texture, hardness, color, weight, and porosity, ranging from loosely consolidated marls through chalk to compact limestones and hard crystalline marbles. Limestones originated in sediments of virtually every geologic age, worldwide. Limestones are used for production of building elements (lime, cement, mortar mixtures, granulated gravel, dimension and building stone, etc.
The sources of calcareous components are; sedimentary deposits of marine origin (limestone), marble (metamorphosed limestone), chalk, marl, coral, aragonite, oyster and clam shells. Tuff. Limestone is originated from the biological deposition of shells and skeletons of plants and animals, massive beds accumulated over millions of years.
In the cement industry limestone includes calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Most industrial quality limestone is of biological origin.
The ideal cement rock 77 to 78% CaCO3, 14% SiO2, 2.5% Al2O3, and 1.75% FeO3. Limestone with lower content of CaCO3 and higher content of alkalis and magnesia requires blending with high grade limestone
The sources of argillaceous component are clay and shale for alumina and silica and Iron ore for iron. Other natural sources of silica are and alumina are: Loess, silt, sandstone, volcanic ash, diatomite, bauxite. Shales, mudstones, and sandstones are typically inter-bedded with the limestone and were deposited as the inland waters and oceans covered the land masses. Clays are typically younger surface deposits
In Summary the sources of the raw materials used in cement industry are:
- Calcium oxide (CaO): Limestone, Shale, Marl, Calcite, Argonite, Clay, Chalk, et
- Silica (SiO2): Clay, Marl, Shale, Sand, Fly ash, Calcium silicate,
- Alumina (Al2O3): Aluminum-ore, Clay, Fly ash, Shale,
- Iron (Fe2O3): Iron ore, Clay, Mill scale, Shale, et
- Magnesia (MgO): Cement rock, Limestone, Slag, etc
- Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O): Calcium sulfate, Anhydrite, Gypsum,
The percentage compositions of some of the typical raw materials used for the manufacture of Portland cement are shown in Table (6). Raw materials are extracted by quarrying in the case of hard rocks such as limestones, slates, and some shales, with the aid of blasting when necessary.
Some deposits are mined. Softer rocks such as chalk and clay can be dug directly by excavators. The excavated materials are transported to the crushing plant by trucks, railway freight cars, conveyor belts, or ropeways, or in a wet state or slurry by pipeline.
There are four major oxides which constitute 90% of the cement weight. The minor oxides constitute 10% and form many oxides, some of them exist in marginal quantities.
II.1.1 Minor Components
In addition to the main compounds mentioned above, there exist minor compounds, such as MgO, TiO2, Mn2O3, K2O and Na2O. Two of the minor compounds are of particular interest: K2O and Na2O, known as the alkalis (about 0.4-1.3% by weight of cement). They have been found to react with the reactive silica found in some aggregates, the products of the reaction causing increase in volume leading to disintegration of the concrete. The increase in the alkalis percentage has been observed to affect the setting time and the rate of the gain of strength of cement.
Other impurities in raw materials that must be strictly limited are fluorine compounds, phosphates, metal oxides and sulfides, and excessive alkalies. Another essential raw material is gypsum, some 5 percent of which is added to the burned cement clinker during grinding to control the setting time of the cement.
Portland cement also can be made in a combined process with sulfuric acid using calcium sulfate or anhydrite in place of calcium carbonate. The sulfur dioxide produced in the flue gases on burning is converted to sulfuric acid by normal processes. SO3 form low percentage of cement weight. SO3 comes from the gypsum added (2-6%) during grinding of the clinker, and from the impurities in the raw materials, also from the fuel used through firing process.
MgO, present in the cement by 1-4%, which comes from the magnesia compounds present in the raw materials. this compound in the hardened concrete. When the magnesia is in amorphous form, it has no harmful effect on the concrete. Other minor compounds such as TiO2, Mn2O3, P2O5 represent < 1%, and they have little importance.
II.1.1 Additives and Corrective Components
Additives are materials which are added to clinker to obtain special effects, such as the regulation of initial setting (Gypsum addition), or added to the raw mix to improve burnability (fluorspar addition).
While the corrective materials rich in SiO2 (Sand) or Al2O3 (Bauxite) or Fe2O3 (Iron Oxide) are frequently used to satisfy the deficient and bring the composition to the required raw mix design. In summary the following box shows the cement raw materials.
II.1 MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR NEW QUARRY
The concessionaire shall prepare a quarry management plan for operation of new quarries and submit it to the IC for approval and necessary actions. The plan shall consist of the following:
II. 4. 1 Selection Details
- Location and Layout
Sketch plans and photographs to be provided along with adequate
- A map and sketch plan of the area showing the location of the proposed quarry site with respect to the project road, nearby villages, crusher plants and worker accommodation locations along with indicative distances of the different sites from each other and from the roa
- A detailed sketch plan of the quarry area showing approach and haulage roads, location of the rock outcrops to be quarried, indicating which sites will be quarried in which year or phase, location of stock piles, location of guard house, perimeter fence, location of water sources, amenities, and any further detail
- Photographs of the site.
II.4.1.1 Selection Criteria
- A brief statement as to how the site was chosen
- Alternative sites that were considered to be mentio
- Record any public consultations involved while choosing and what the public concerns were, if any.
II.4.1.2 Agreement with landowners
- Statement of ownership of the land along with lease / purchase agreeme
II.4.1.3 Licenses and permits
- Concessionaire to state the licenses and permits that are necessary for operation, and attach them as appropriate
II. 4. 2 Quarrying Operation
- Method of extraction
- A brief method statement of extraction indicating the techniques to be used, use of explosives if any, if so how are the charges laid, how often the blasting shall be done,
- Appropriate reference should be made to the concessionaire‟s safety manual
- A copy of the operator‟s license to handle explosives should be submitted
II.4.2.2 Loading and haulage
- Concessionaire to describe the process in a few sentences of loading of rocks fragments; means of transportation to the crusher, and from the crusher to the site.
- Type, manufacturer, date of manufacture and principal specifications of the plant, details on testing and commissioning (by whom, to what standard, and when).
II.4.2.4 Storage of explosives
- Concessionaire to state where these are to be procured from, where they will be stored and how the supply of explosives will be kept secure (if they are to be kept off site, state what precautions will be given for transportation).
- A list of aggregate sizes and any other products from the quarry.
Make sure the sketch map states where these will be stock piled.
II.4.2.6 Testing and quality assurance
- Refer quality assurance plan of concessionaire if any.
- If not, concessionaire to provide details of sampling frequency, who takes the does the testing, which standards are to be complied with, and any further pertinent detail
II.4.2.7 Water sourcing
- Concessionaire to indicate the operations that shall need water, and its source (an indication on the sketch map will suffice).
- Ensure that workers at the quarry sites are aware of the appropriate sections of the safety plan
II.4.2.9 Workers Accommodation
- Concessionaire to provide details of how many workers will be accommodated on site and what the accommodation arrangements and standard will be
II.5SAFETY RULES FOR FIELD TRIPS AND FIELD CAMP
- RECOMMENDED PERSONAL FIELD GEAR
- Water hydration system (we recommend lightweight stainless steel water bottles don‟t use bottles made with recycled plastic!)
- Good field boots & plenty of clean/dry socks back in camp
- Rain gear plus other light-weight layers
- Broad-brim hat & bandana to protect your neck (ball caps are not recommended)
- Lightweight field pants and breathable long-sleeve shirts recommended
- Sun-screen, sunglasses
- Pocket knife (or Leatherman-style multi-tool)
- Extra pencils & lead; small pencil sharpener (for colored pencils); extra safety pins
- Acid bottle with 10% HCl
- Insect repellant? (Not recommended unless it is extremely buggy – use your judgment)
- Head lamp
II.5.2 ESSENTIALS FOR EVENING WORK BACK IN CAMP-
- Large Tupperware box to hold all your drafting supplies and extra field supplies
- Two drafting triangles of different sizes
- Scotch tape
- Tracing paper and your equal-area stereo-net from structure
- Graph paper (10 squares to the inch)
- Several colored pencils (erasable recommended) – set of 24
- Pencil sharpener (Staedtler makes a good one)
- Black rapido graph-style drafting pens (at least three line widths, for example, the Pigma MICRON in sizes 005, 02, and 05); Millennium makes a similar
- Red drafting pens for structural features (fold hinges, )
- French curves, or K&E #59 Ships Curve
- Stereo net from structural geology, plus a pad of overlay paper
- Pocket calculator
II.5.1 OPTIONAL FIELD GEAR-
- Sample bags (zip-lock heavy-duty freezer bags work well and they are light and cheap)
- Camera (digital preferred)
- Binoculars (compact and water-proof recommended)
- Swiss rock hammer
- GPS receiver (Garmin recommended)
- Cell phone and charger
- Laptop computer
- Pocket knife
II.5.2 RECOMMENDED CAMPING EQUIPMENT-
- Antibiotic hand cleaner
- Waterproof & breathable tent (share with another student if you wish – it will save space)
- Sleeping bag & pad
- Warm weather and cool weather clothing – be prepared for extremes, including snow and scorching heat
- Alarm clock
- Flash light
- Toilet kit
Flip-flops (for public showers and general camp use)
- Camp chair – small and compact (type that collapses into a tube – nylon with frame)
- Compact, lightweight backpacking stove & fuel
|·||Minimal cooking utensils & mess kit, plus disinfectant|
|Multi-liter containers for extra water|
Swimsuit, towel, sandals
|Extra cloths and lots of field socks|
II.5.1 PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY
If you are involved in an emergency of any kind, you are to:
- Stop what you are doing
- Check / clear the situatio
- Call for help if a phone is av
- Begin a chain of communication that mov
- During an emergency, you should remain in the same geographic location allowing information to pass efficiently along this
- If you are qualified or have been trained apply appropriate medical treatment. At the very least, keep the victim comfortable, warm, and conscious.
II.5.1 GENERAL RULES
- Smoking in vehicles is not permitted
- Everyone must make a special effort to be prepared to leave for the field and other destinations at the appointed
- One person who opts to sleep in, grab a last minute sandwich, or makes a long phone call will hold up the group or possibly get left
- You should always ride in your assigned vehicle so it will be obvious if you are missing when we leave stop or out
- Radios, CD players, IPods, MP3 players bull sessions, song feasts, and the like are permitted only as long as they don’t infringe upon the rights of others to study, sleep, or impair the concentration of the driver to operate the vehicle safely.
- Efforts should be made to ensure that all equipment is properly cared Careless treatment of tents, trailers, personal gear, etc.
can result in other members of the group becoming cold, wet, or inconvenienced in some other manner.
- At all times you should respect the ecology of the areas we visit and show a respect for Do not intentionally damage vegetation or other natural features. Do not pollute lakes and streams and do not deface natural or manmade objects. Do not throw stones or roll boulders down hill slopes.
II.5.1 SAFETY IN THE FIELD
- Always wear boots in the Tennis shoes, etc. are not recommended for fieldwork, as they do not provide adequate ankle support.
- Use extreme caution in, and when possible stay out of particularly, precipitous
- Climbing in dangerous areas is not permitted. If you have doubts about whether working/visiting an area could be potentially dangerous “don’t do it” (no area, however interesting and/or spectacular, is worth placing your safety at risk). Identify dangerous (forbidden) areas but you must use good
- When climbing, be careful to avoid dislodging loose A rolling rock can be extremely dangerous to the people below.
- Avoid climbing directly above another person or If you must pass above them on a slope, always warn the people below of what you intend to do and wait until they get out of the way. If you dislodge a rock, yell, “rock, look out below”. If you are below, seek shelter and look upslope for the projectile.
- Do not place yourself in jeopardy by moving directly below another person or If you must traverse a slope below another person, ask them to remain still until you are safely out of the way.
- DO NOT ROLL BOULDERS; there could be other people, cattle, out of sight down slope and a rapidly moving boulder can be fatal.
- Exercise extreme caution if you smoke in the Forest or sage brush fires are an ever present hazard. Make doubly sure that matches and cigarette butts are extinguished.
- Better still-don’t This is an opportunity to cut down on a bad habit. There may be times during drought when public lands are posted prohibiting fires of all kinds including smoking. You must honor these special regulations and not smoke.
- If you become lost when in the field, do not wander looking for the group; that will just make you more Stay where you are. Position yourself near a path or open ground. Do not stay near a raging stream as the noise makes it difficult to hear and be heard. A search party will find you.
- Take the time to find or acquire the appropriate shelter and water for a night‟s stay should that be necessary.
- You should never be alone when in the If you or your partner becomes injured when in the field, do not panic. Check the scene; insure there is no further chance for injury. Determine the extent of the injury. Call for/find help. Do not offer to treat the injury unless you have been trained to do so. Do not move an injured person, especially if the injury involves broken bones.
- Be careful when crossing fences that you don’t break them down (bad for the fence) or cut yourself on the barbed wire (bad for you). Also, ALWAYS leave gates as you found If they are open, leave them open. If they are closed, make sure they are closed after you pass through.
- When you leave for the field be certain you have:
1) a raincoat,
2) a warm parka, and
3) dry matches properly
- If you have to spend a night in the mountains, these materials are
- During an emergency, you should remain in the same geographic location allowing information to pass efficiently along this
II.5.1 WEATHER SAFETY
- Field work is to end and you are to seek shelter when extreme heat, cold, precipitation, or wind
- Lightning is a particularly serious danger when working at high elevations and in exposed
- You are to exercise NO DELAY in seeking shelter and moving from high exposed regions when thunderstorms are approach
- Hypothermia is a serious life-threatening condition. You are to dress appropriately for weather conditions, but if faced with hypothermia, are to stop working and do what is necessary to conserve This includes removing wet clothing, seeking shelter, and curling up in a ball to retain body heat.
- Heat stroke is a similarly serious life-threatening
Students are to always have not less than 2 liters of water when they depart for a day in the field. Seeking shelter from the sun, allowing the body to periodically cool off, and being continually hydrated are the best defenses against heat stroke.
- Sun poisoning occurs all too often, particularly on fair-skinned people. Stay covered with clothing. Always wear a hat in the
II.5.2 ILLNESS OR INJURY
Only the individuals involved can make a rational decision about their physical condition and whether or not they should seek medical help. Several courses of action are available.
- For minor illnesses or injuries such as colds, blisters, minor sprains, the individual must decide whether to “tough it out” or to stay in camp for the day and recover. It should be kept in mind that if you are unable to continue your work in the field, your entire group must stop mapping in order to get you back to camp since mapping groups are not permitted to split up.
- This must be weighed against the loss of mapping time you yourself suffer if you choose to remain in
- Some injuries (e.g. twisted knees, sprained ankles and the like) make it impossible for you to keep up with your In this case a decision must be made about whether one or two days rest will get you back on your feet, whether you require medical attention, or whether you will be unable to continue with Field Camp.
- Anyone who feels that he or she should take a “sick day” should report this to the
- You are encouraged not to “malinger”, but will never be forced into the In general, treatment of minor injuries such as small cuts and blisters is the responsibility of the individual.
- If you need medical attention, every effort will be made to get you to a doctor as quickly as It should be kept in mind that in some cases the nearest doctor could be close to 100 miles away and decisions to get medical help should not be postponed until the situation is critical.
- In the event of serious illness or injury in the field, the following procedure should be followed if the victim can move under his/her own power:
- Use your Van radio to report the problem to other groups and to the
- The entire group is to leave the field along the easiest route available
- once the group has reached a road, it may be necessary for the group to split up (the only conditions under which this is permitted).
- The injured person should be made as comfortable as possible and at least one person should remain with him/her.
- The remaining person(s) should proceed as quickly as possible to a van (if one is available) or to
- If a van is available in the field, return to camp with the victim unless common sense dictates that you should go directly to the hospital (e.g., very severe bleeding).
- DO NOT SPEED! An accident only compounds an emergency.
- In the event of serious illness or injury in the field, the following procedure should be followed if the victim is immobile
- Use a van radio to report the problem to other groups and to the staff
- Make the victim as comfortable and warm as At least one person should remain with the victim.
- Part of the group should return to camp for help as quickly as possible (Again: DO NOT SPEED! If you don’t make it to camp you are no help to anyone).
- NOTE: If there is a suspicion of a back or neck injury, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO MOVE THE VICTim
II.5.1 OPERATION OF VEHICLES IN THE FIELD
- In general, staff members will drive the field camp vehicl However, because of the long distances involved (especially on the return trip), occasionally individuals that have been selected by the staff and cleared for driving will be called upon to serve as drivers
- Reckless or inept driving cannot be tolerated and anyone exhibiting this behavior will be replaced immediately.
- Only individuals who have filled out a “Driver‟s Information Form” and hold a valid driver’s license may operate the vehicl Any person who operates a vehicle must receive permission (each time) from a faculty member.
- At all times, vans are to be driven at reasonable speeds as dictated by road, weather, and traffic conditions, etc. AT NO TIME are vehicles to be operated in excess of existing speed lim Speeding tickets and any other violations are the responsibility of the driver, No one will pay fines resulting from violations.
- No alcoholic beverages or other drugs are permitted in the vans-violation will result in dismissal from the co This regulation will be enforced!
- No one is permitted to operate a van after having consumed any alcoholic beverage or other intoxicating substance (legal or illegal drugs) within 5 hours of driving.
- Vehicles are to be kept neat and in good repair. (Throw out trash at each opportunity.)
- Report all mechanical problems immediately and treat the vehicles with respect. Do not force or slam doors and keep your feet on the floo
- Collect all toll receipts, gas receipts, A staff member will reimburse you later.
- The driver of a van is responsible for the safety of at least 10 individuNo activity is permitted in the vans that could interfere with, or infringe on, the rights of other passeng
- For this reason, special efforts will be required to maintain safe driving habits.
- The person to the right of the driver (co-pilot) is to stay awake and alert at all tim This person is the assistant driver and should handle map reading, tolls, etc. for the driver.
- No driver is permitted to drive to the point of fatigue
- When traveling, all vehicles are to maintain a reasonable spacing-do not lag behind–do not tailgate. Except under emergency conditions, no vehicle is EVER to pass another vehicle in the carav If you want to report a problem, use the radio. If it is inoperative, flash your headlights until the caravan pulls over.
- It is the driver’s responsibility to check oil, water, tires, at each gas stop.
- ALWAYS show the credit card to the station attendant before gassing the van to make certain that it will be accepte If the tanks are filled and the credit card is rejected, you will have to “front the bill” until you can be reimbursed at a later date.
- The two-way radios are for business communications only. No excessive chatter and no CB jargon are permitte The radio must be left on at all times so that you can be contacted in the event of an emergency. The AM/FM stereo or other noise in the van must be kept low enough so that any radio transmission can be heard.
- The western states in particular are overrun with a rodent population such as ground squirrels, prairie dogs, NEVER jeopardize the lives of your passengers by swerving or braking to avoid one of these small animals.
- Always ride in your assigned v Always check to make certain your van has all its passengers when we leave stop so that we don‟t drive off and leave someone.
- Do not ride in the trunk of any car or v If a van is full, wait for the next one.
- Vehicles are never to be run or idled to provide music, heat, or air conditioning unless directed to by a staff member
II.5.1 CARE OF EQUIPMENT
- In an effort to minimize the cost of field camp and ensure safety, we provide equipment that must be used year after y You are responsible for its safekeeping and proper use
- Care of your own equipment is also critical to your comf Never leave your sleeping bag where it can get wet. Remember that afternoon thunderstorms are common even on the nicest days.
- You are provided with a Brunton compass and carrying case, Pocket PCs and spare batteries, and a Garmin When issued, the equipment is in perfect working condition (do not accept it if it’s not). We expect to receive the equipment in good shape at the end of the course.
- Normal wear is expecte If you lose equipment you will be charged its fair market value for replacement. If you damage it due to carelessness, you will be charged the cost of its repair. Always check to be certain the belt strap on the case is secure for any equipment you carry that way.
- Each field person is issued a pair of stereo glasse Replacement cost is
- Each mapping group will be issued a GPS unit for each Groups will be charged if $200.00 if he unit is lost or damaged. Replacement batteries are the responsibility of the users.
- During each project, each mapping group is issued air photo coverage of the If any photo is lost or damaged, the mapping group will be charged for loss (black and white air photos, $2 each; color photos,
- During each project, each mapping group is issued air photo coverage of the If any photo is lost or damaged, the mapping group will be charged for loss (black and white air photos, $2 each; color photos,
II.5.1 COOKING, CLEANUP, and MEAL EDIQUETTE
- Early on field camp you will be assigned to a cook crew. Each cook crew will have a crew leader who is responsible for the smooth operation of that cook crew.
- Cook crews prepare breakfast, lay out lunch materials and cook dinner on their cook day. On the day following, they are the cleanup crew.
The crew leader is responsible for waking his/her crew early enough to have breakfast finished by 7:45 AM. sharp. This will allow the cleanupcrew one half hour for cleanup prior to our 8:30 AM departure for the field.
- The details of cooking and cleanup are too expensive to review
They will be reviewed in detail early in the program; however, a few important points are reviewed next.
- The cook-crew leader will ring the dinner bell when the meal is ready to be serv The cook crew dishes out food to each student and serves themselves after the others are served. The COOK CREW announces “seconds” after THEY have finished eating.
- Unless you are cooking, stay out of the cooking No one is allowed to eat in the cooking area.
- Reasonable table manners and rules of etiquette are expected of all persons at all
Quarrying management operation
QUARRYING MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS
- KEY QUARRY ACTIVITIES
- Land Clearing – removing vegetation by bulldozer or manual removal (depending on slope and other site conditions).
- Overburden Stripping – removal of topsoil and other materials not suitable for construction, by bulldoz Stockpiling of soil and rock for future use / rehabilitation.
- Excavation of rock – using blasting and drilling techniq
- Loading and transportation of rock – from the quarry face to the crushing facil
- Crushing and stockpiling – Large rock pieces are crushed to size using a series of crushers and conveyors, and stockpiled by size and type ready for transportation to the construction Crushers will be located on a relatively level area and without vegetation, near the access road and energy sources (generator and / or 20kV electricity distribution line).
- Asphalt manufacturing – the location and operation of the asphalt manufacturing plan
- Office and other facilities ‐ The office will be permanent and located
near the quarry entrance. Other facilities include a maintenance shed,
mosque, church, a simple health clinic, power generators, warehouses and security posts.
- Water supply – a natural water supply from the springs at the quarry will be used in the quarrying and crushing processes and for dust suppressio
- Transportation to the construction site ‐ Rock and sand material will
be transported by dump truck. Materials will be transported by dump truck
to construction site at an estimated rate of 9 trucks / hour (with 30 ton bucket capacity).
Rehabilitation / Restoration
- Restoration of the former quarry areas is done using the overburden and fertilizers to restore soil stability and soil fertility, which is then planted with productive pl Reclamation activities will be conducted after the completion of quarrying activities.
- General Quarry Operations Management
The Quarry Environmental management Plan (EMP) shall document general quarry operations and management for good housekeeping to further reduce the environmental and social risks.
The EMP shall contain as a minimum the following practices:
- Operations must be conducted in discrete stages with all valuable material fully extracted so that progressive rehabilitation can be carried out.
- Planning for progressive rehabilitation while operations are ongoing.
- Planning of final rehabilitation of a pit should occur well before the cessation of operation
- Any plan for the rehabilitation of a site should include a brief description of the site prior to the commencement of operations, including: soils, landform, flora and fauna, drainage and conservation value
- Deposits should be worked in a systematic manner, generally across or down the slope, so that worked out sections can be rehabilitated and left to re-vegetate without further disturba
- Minimization of the total disturbed area is the best method of reducing erosion caused by storm water runoff and weed invasion. Use boundary markers, such as stakes and flagging tape, to indicate to machinery operators the extent of areas to be cle
- Rock removal should be carried out in a series of working benches if the material is st Orientation of benches should take into account the underlying geology and vantage points from which the quarry is visible.
- All benches should be self draining. Each bench should act as a table drain, carrying water along the bench to a suitable discharge point or settling pond. If drainage is allowed to flow down the face from one bench to the next, erosion will occur and the benches may be lost.
- Topsoil deteriorates in quality while stockpile To help maintain soil quality:
- Topsoil should be kept separate from overburden, gravel and other materials; if possible, windrows of topsoil should not exceed one meter in height to reduce “souring’;
- Topsoil stockpiles should be protected from erosion;
- Growing vegetation on the stockpiles (shrubs or grasses) reduces erosion and will maintain biological activity in the soil;
- Topsoil should not be buried or driven on, as this will damage soil structure;
- Soil should be stored somewhere out of the way; and
- Excessive handling of topsoil should be avoided
- Sites should be regularly inspected for the presence of noxious weeds, their presence should be recorded, and if necessary a control program implemented.
- All runoffs from working areas, which contains sediment, should be collected in settling ponds before being discharged from the prem Water from washing, screening, or dust reduction plants should be treated in a like manner. Accepted methods for removal of sediment from runoff include settling ponds, hay bale filters, aggregate filters, wetlands (shallow ponds planted with suitable swamp plants). For borrow pits in vegetated areas, runoff should be directed through vegetation prior to reaching any watercourse to enable further filtering of sediment.
- The following practices shall be considered to minimize environmental impact on air quality:
- The direction of the prevailing winds and the placement of the stockpile on the site should be considered during the planning stage
- Trees should be planted for windbreaks or topography and/or embankments utilized, to shield stockpiles and working areas from prevailing wi As conveyors and transfer points can be major sources of dust, enclosures, mist sprays, or approved dust extraction equipment may be required.
- Drop distance between discharge point and top of the stockpile should be kept to a minimum.
- The speed of vehicles is an important factor in the generation of dust. The speed of vehicles on site may need to be restricte
- In addition, where transport routes are along unsealed roads, it may be advisable to slow down in the vicinity of residents along these rout
- Waste oil must not be used as a dust
- Visual impact shall be minimized through:
- Natural vegetation is a valuable resource that should be employed for screening purposes.
- Vegetation may needlessly be destroyed by brief activities with heavy machinery at the pit boundary. Clearing should be kept to the minimum absolutely necessary for efficient operations. Planting of vegetation will also provide additional screening.
- Quarry faces should be screened from frequently used roads and commonly visited vantage poi Existing topographic features may be utilized as effective screens and any landscaping undertaken should be designed to be visually compatible with the surrounding natural landscape. Where practical, working faces should be oriented away from vantage points and neighbors and the direction of working should be carefully chosen so that the working face is hidden from the most critical view. Where possible, uppermost benches should be worked out and rehabilitated as soon as possible.
The following activities are prohibited on or near the project site:
- Cutting of trees for any reason outside the quarry;
- Hunting, fishing, wildlife capture and poaching, or plant collection;
- Buying of wild animals or their meat for food or any other purposes;
- Disturbance to anything with architectural or historical value;
- Building fires outside camp areas without being authorization;
- Use of firearms (except authorized security guards);
- Use of alcohol by workers during working hours;
- Washing car or machinery in streams or creeks;
- Doing maintenance (change of oils and filters) of cars and equipment outside authorized areas;
- Littering of the site and disposing trash in unauthorized places;
- Workers driving motorbikes without wearing helmets;
- Control construction plants or vehicles by unauthorized person;
- Driving at speeds exceeding limits;
- Having caged wild animals (especially birds) in camps;
- Working without safety equipment (including gloves, boots and masks;
- Creating nuisances and disturbances in or near communities;
- Disrespecting local customs and traditions;
- The use of rivers and streams for washing of clothes;
- The use of welding equipment, oxy‐ acetylene torches and other bare flames where fires constitute a hazard;
- Indiscriminate disposal of rubbish or construction wastes or rubble;
- Spillage of potential pollutants, such as petroleum products;
- The storage and use of explosives;
- Collection of firewood;
- Going to the toilet outside of the designated facilities; and
- Burning of wastes and/or cleared vegetati
Standard procedures shall be documented in the Quarry EMP. As a minimum the plan shall include:
- Strict rules on limiting access to the quarry areas, so that people who are not concerned cannot enter;
- That all personnel shall be provided (and wear) personal safety equipment (PSE), such as safety helmets, safety shoes, vests, dust masks, goggles, and a high visibility vest;
- Providing radio communications equipment to facilitate coordination in the field;
- Conducting periodic monitoring of heavy vehicles and equipment for safety risks;
- Limiting the hours of operation of heavy vehicles and equipment, to minimize risks relating to staff fatigue; and
- Conduct inspections of the access point to the location of rock transport project because of the steepness of the rout
Activities to be covered by the Quarry EMP
The quarry environmental management plan must cover the environmental management of the following key activities:
- Land clearance and preparation
- Stockpiling of topsoil and overburden
- Asphalt manufacture
- Hours of Operation
- Control of quarry traffic
- Community liaison
- Landscape rehabilitation
- The plan should not cover procedures and mitigation measures for:
- Land acquisition and relocation of households, agricultural land and business These activities are covered by the Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plan.
- Road c These issues are covered in the Construction Works Management Plan.
Roles and Responsibilities
The Quarry Environmental Management Plan shall outline the various roles and responsibilities of the following parties:
- Supervising Engineer
- Quarry Contractor
- Staff and Subcontractors
- Quarry Manager
- Government agencies
- External stakeholders
Management and Operations of the EMP
All those responsible for the management and operation of any aspect of the Environmental Management Plan shall be adequately trained for their role. Evidence of training should be maintained on site, for inspection/auditing purposes. Records of training attendance and training programs shall be kept and be available for inspection / auditing.
Hazardous Substances Management and Emergency Procedures
All staff involved in the handling and use of chemicals and fuel must be trained in handling, spill and emergency procedures. Evidence of training should be kept for inspection / auditing purposes.
Asphalt management: All staff involved in the manufacturing, transport and handling of asphalt must be trained in handling, spill, dust, water management and emergency procedures. Evidence of training should be kept for inspection / auditing purposes.
Sediment Control, and Control of Discharges Training shall be provided by a third party, or provide evidence of previous training, for the construction, maintenance and monitoring of environmental protection and discharge treatment devices. Evidence of training should be kept for inspection / auditing purposes.
Traffic Management and Driver Education Training shall be provided by a third party, or provide evidence of previous training, for the safe control and driving of heavy vehicles and heavy machinery for quarry operations. Evidence of training should be kept for inspection / auditing purposes.
Blasting and the Management of Explosives Training shall be provided by a third party, or provide evidence of previous training, for the safe handing and use of explosives, and in emergency procedures. Evidence of training should be kept for inspection /auditing purposes.
SUMMARIZING THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
- Environmental Management during Operation
Removal of trees and plants: Concessionaire to describe briefly the floral species that have had to be removed (it will be helpful give local names if English or scientific names are not known), and roughly how many.
Overburden: Concessionaire to state where this will be deposited (indicate on the sketch map), and what methods will be taken to contain it, if any.
Silt management: Concessionaire to state how silt arising from quarry operations will be managed, e.g. provision of a silt retention pond, and show where this is on the sketch map. Say how the silt retention pond will be managed
(i.e. how often it will be dredged).
Surface water drainage: If it will be necessary to provide drainage channels, concessionaire to show on the sketch map where these are and confirm that they will be kept free of blockages.
Soil and water contamination: Concessionaire to list sources of possible contaminants to the soil (fuel stores, etc) and what will be done to control it (minimize spillages, control leaks from plant, etc).
Air pollution: What are the sources of air pollution? ; Details of air pollution control measures in each case.; Details of worker protection equipment along with appropriate reference to the safety plan.
Noise: Sources of noise, distance from settlement, labour camp and proposed mitigation to the population / workers exposed.
Traffic: Impact of quarry operations on traffic and how this may be controlled.
Approach road: Concessionaire to state whether this will be maintained, and if so in what condition.
- Environmental Management at Closure of the site
Dismantling and removal of machinery: Concessionaire to state whether and when this shall be done.
Slope stabilization and / or protection: Measures taken to protect the slope and to guard against any possible serious rock-fall, or any measures to safeguard against hazards like this.
Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation plan of the quarry. The concessionaire shall be responsible for the Redevelopment Plan prior to completion after five years, during the defect liability period. The IC and the APRDC shall be responsible for reviewing this case of redevelopment prior to the issuing the defect liability certificate.
Hand-over Terms of hand-over of the quarry site to the owner/authority at the end of its use.
Removal of debris and solid waste: Confirmation of Concessionaire in removal of debris and solid waste