Contents

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# To download the below and all other Useful Books and calculations Excel sheets please click here

# Rotary Kilns Transport Phenomena and Transport Processes

Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns.

## Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon

*The Rotary Kiln Evolution *Types of Rotary Kilns

*Wet Kilns *Long Kilns

Short Dry Kilns

Coolers and Dryers

References

## Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation

Subtopics anticipated will include but not limited to the following: Bed Phenomenon

Geometrical Features and their Transport Effects Transverse Bed Motion

Experimental Observations of Transverse Flow Behavior

Axial Motion

Dimensionless Residence Time

References

## Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Pipes – General Background

Basic Equations of Multicomponent Reacting Flows Development of a Turbulent Jet

Confined Jets

Swirling Jets

Precessing Jets

The Particle-laden Jet

Dust Entrainment

Induced Draft Fan

References

## Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns

Flow of Granular Materials (Granular Flows)

The Equations of Motion for Granular Flows

Particulate Flow Behavior in Rotary Kilns

Overview of the Observed Flow Behavior in a Rotary Drums

Modeling the Granular Flow in the Transverse Plain Particulate Flow Model in Rotary Kilns

Model Description

Simplifying Assumptions

Governing Equations for Momentum Conservation Integral Equation for Momentum Conservation

Solution of the Momentum Equation in the Active Layer of the Bed Velocity Profile in the Active Layer

Density and Granular Temperature Profiles

An Analytical Expression for the Thickness of the Active Layer

Numerical Solution Scheme for the Momentum Equation

Model Results and Validation

Application of the Flow Model

References

## Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation

Modeling of Particle Mixing and Segregation in Rotary Kilns Bed Segregation Model The Governing Equations for Segregation Boundary Conditions Solution of the Segregation Equation Numerical Solution of the Governing Equations Validation of the Segregation Model Application of Segregation Model References

## Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame

Combustion

Mole and Mass Fractions

Combustion Chemistry

Practical Stoichiometry

Adiabatic flame temperature

Types of Fuels used in Rotary Kilns

Coal Types, Ranking, and Analysis

Petroleum Coke Combustion

Scrap Tire Combustion

Pulverized Fuel (coal/coke) Firing in Kilns

Pulverized Fuel Delivery and Firing Systems

Estimation of Combustion Air Requirement

Reaction Kinetics of Carbon Particles

Fuel Oil Firing

Combustion Modeling

Flow Visualization Modeling (Acid Alkali Modeling) Mathematical Modeling including CFD

Gas-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling

Particle-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling

Emissions Modeling

CFD Evaluation of a Rotary Kiln Pulverized Fuel Burner

Reference

## Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer

Overview of Heat Transfer Mechanisms Conduction Heat Transfer Convection Heat Transfer Conduction-Convection Problems Shell Losses Refractory Lining Materials Radiation Heat Transfer The concept of blackbody Radiation Shape Factors Radiation Exchange Between Multiple Gray Surfaces Radiative Effect of Combustion Gases Heat Transfer Coefficients for Radiation in the Freeboard of a Rotary Kiln Radiative Exchange from the Freeboard Gas to Exposed Bed and Wall Surfaces Radiative Heat Transfer among Exposed Freeboard Surfaces Reference

## Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed

Heat Transfer between the Covered Wall and the Bed Modified Penetration Model for Rotary Kiln Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer Effective Thermal Conductivity of Packed Beds Effective Thermal Conductivity in Rotating Bed Mode Thermal Modeling of Rotary Kiln Processes Description of the Thermal Model One-dimensional Thermal Model for Bed and Freeboard Two-dimensional Thermal Model for the Bed The Combined Axial and Cross-sectional Model – The Quasi 3-Dimensional Model for the Bed Solution Procedure Model Results and Application Single-Particle Heat transfer Modeling for Expanded Shale Processing Reference

## Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance

Chemical Thermodynamics Gibbs Free Energy and Entropy Global Heat and Material Balance Thermal Module for Chemically Reactive System Mass Balance Inputs Chemical Compositions Energy Balance Inputs

## Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications

Lime Making Limestone Dissociation (Calcination) The rotary Lime Kiln The Cement Making Process The Cement Process chemistry Rotary Cement Kiln Energy Usage Mineral Ore Reduction Processes in Rotary Kilns The Rotary Kiln SL/RN Process Roasting of Titaniferous Materials The Rotary Kiln Lightweight Aggregate Making Process Raw Material Characterization Mineralogy Thermal History References