Contents

- 1 EVERY SINGLE EQUATION IN CEMENT INDUSTRY
- 2 P A R T I
- 3 CEMENT CHEMISTRY
- 4 Chapter 1
- 5 QUALITY CONTROL FORMULAS
- 5.1 1.01 Ignition Loss
- 5.2 1.02 Silica Ratio
- 5.3 1.03 Alumina – Iron Ratio
- 5.4 1.04 Lime Saturation Factor
- 5.5 1.05 Hydraulic Ratio
- 5.6 1.06 Percent Liquid
- 5.7 1.07 Burn ability Index
- 5.8 1.09 Bogue’s Formulas for Clinker and Cement Constituents
- 5.9 1.10 Total Carbonates
- 5.10 1.11 Total Alkalis as Na2O
- 5.11 1.12 Conversion of Raw Analysis to Loss Free Basis
- 5.12 1.14 Calculation of Total Carbonates from Acid-Alkali Titration
- 5.13 1.15 Percent Calcination
- 5.14 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

- 6 Chapter 2 KILN FEED MIX CALCULATIONS
- 7 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
- 8 Chapter 3
KILN FEED SLURRY
- 8.1 3.01 Specific Gravity and Pulp Density of Slurries
- 8.2 3.02 Properties of Water
- 8.3 3.03 Mass of Slurry Required per Mass of Clinker
- 8.4 3.04 Slurry Feed Rate Required
- 8.5 3.05 Clinker Production for a Given Slurry Rate
- 8.6 3.06 Clinker Production per Slurry Tank Unit
- 8.7 3.07 Specific Gravity of Slurry
- 8.8 3.08 Dry Solids per unit Volume of Slurry
- 8.9 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

- 9 Chapter 4
- 10 CHEMICAL AND PHISICAL PROPERTIES OF
MATERIALS USED IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING
- 10.1 4.02 Bulk Densities of Common Materials
- 10.2 4.03 Typical Coal Analysis
- 10.3 4.04 Typical Fuel Oil Properties
- 10.4 4.04 Typical Gaseous Fuel Properties
- 10.5 4.05 Barometric Pressure at Different Altitudes
- 10.6 4.06 Sieve Sizes
- 10.7 4.07 Coefficients of Linear Expansion
- 10.8 4.09 Properties of Air
- 10.9 4.10 Particulate Concentration in Gases
- 10.10 4.11 Selected International Weights
- 10.11 4.12 Selected Minerals and Ores
- 10.12 4.13 Classification of Minerals
- 10.13 4.14 Chemical Formula and Molecular Weight of Common Minerals

- 11 Chapter 5
FORMULAS AND DATA USED IN COMBUSTION
CALCULATIONS
- 11.1 5.01 Termochemical Reactions
- 11.2 5.02 Combustion Constants
- 11.3 5.03 Heat Value of Fuel
- 11.4 5.04 Conversion from “Gross” to “Net” Heating Value’
- 11.5 5.05 Analysis of Coal
- 11.6 5.06 Methods of Expressing Solid Fuel Analysis
- 11.7 5.07 Conversion of Coal Analysis to Different Basis
- 11.8 5.08 Typical Coal Ash Analysis
- 11.9 5.09 Fuel Ignition Temperature
- 11.10 5.10 Percent Coal Ash Absorbed in Clinker
- 11.11 5.11 Effect of Coal ash on Clinker Composition
- 11.12 5.12 Determination of Theoretical Fuel Consumption

- 12 Chapter 6 pH: HYDROGEN – ION – CONCENTRATIONS
- 13 P A R T II B U R N I NG
- 14 Chapter 8& 9
KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
- 14.1 9.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Kilogram of Clinker
- 14.2 9.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors
- 14.3 9.11 Products of Combustion
- 14.4 9.12 Weight of Gases from the Feed
- 14.5 9.13 Total Weight of Kiln Exit Gases
- 14.6 9.14 Percent Moisture in Kiln Gas
- 14.7 9.15 Density of Kiln Exit Gas
- 14.8 9.16 Volume of Moist Kiln Exit Gas

- 15 Chapter 10 & 11
HEAT BALANCE
- 15.1 11.01 Heat Input from the Combustion of Fuel
- 15.2 11.02 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Fuel
- 15.3 11.03 Organic Substance in Kiln Feed
- 15.4 11.04 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Kiln Feed
- 15.5 11.05 Heat Input from Cooler Air Sensible Heat
- 15.6 11.06 Heat Input from Primary Air Sensible Heat
- 15.7 11.07 Heat Input from Infiltrated Air Sensible Heat
- 15.8 11.08 Heat Required for Clinker Formation
- 15.9 11.09 Heat Loss with Kiln Exit Gas
- 15.10 11.10 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed of Slurry
- 15.11 11.11 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed or Slurry
- 15.12 11.12 Heat Loss with Clinker at Cooler Discharge
- 15.13 11. 13 Heat Loss at Cooler Stack
- 15.14 11.14 Heat Losses by Radiation on Kiln Shell
- 15.15 11.15 Heat Loss Due to Calcination of Wasted Kiln Dust

- 16 Chapter 13
COEFFICIENT, AND
COMPUTATION FOR NATURAL GAS FIRING
- 16.1 13.01 Mean Specific Heat of Clinker (Base: 0 ºC)
- 16.2 13.02 Mean Specific Heat of Raw Materials (Base: 0 ºC)
- 16.3 13.03 Mean Specific Heat of Exit Gas Components (Base: 0 ºC)
- 16.4 13.04 Mean Specific Heat of Fuels (Base: 0 ºC)
- 16.5 13.05 Mean Specific Heat of Water Vapor (Base: 0 ºC)
- 16.6 13.06 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Heat Loss on Kiln Shell
- 16.7 13.13 Computations for Natural Gas Firing

- 17 Chapter 14
USEFUL FORMULAS IN
KILN DESIGN AND OPERATION
- 17.1 14.1 Cooling of Kiln Exit Gases by Water
- 17.2 14.02 Kiln Feed Residence Time
- 17.3 14.03 Kiln Slope Conversion
- 17.4 14.04 Kiln Sulfur Balance
- 17.5 14.05 The Standard Coal Factor, Combustion Air Requirements
- 17.6 14.6 Cooler Performance
- 17.7 14.07 Combustion Air Required for Natural Gas Firing
- 17.8 14.8 Products of Combustion on Natural Gas Firing
- 17.9 14.9 Percent Loading of the Kiln
- 17.10 14.10 Cross – Sectional Loading of the Kiln
- 17.11 14.11 Flame Propagation Speed
- 17.12 14.12 Kiln Drive Horsepower
- 17.13 14.13 Theoretical Exit Gas Composition, by Volume
- 17.14 14.14 Conversion of Specific Heat Consumption into Annualized Costs
- 17.15 14.15 Theoretical Flame Temperature
- 17.16 14.16 The “True” CO2 Content in the Exit Gases
- 17.17 14.17 Alkali Balance
- 17.18 14.18 Kiln Speed Conversions
- 17.19 14.19 Power Audit on Kiln Equipment
- 17.20 14.20 Coating and Ring Formation
- 17.21 14.21 Relationship Silica Ratio vs. Saturation Factor
- 17.22 14.02 A kiln has the following characteristics:

- 18 Chapter 15
CHAIN SYSTEMS IN WET PROCESS KILNS
- 18.1 15.01 Chain Angle of Garland Hung Chains
- 18.2 15.02 Evaporation Rate (Wet Kiln)
- 18.3 15.03 Total Heat Transfer Surface
- 18.4 15.04 Effective Heat Transfer Volume for Evaporation
- 18.5 15.05 Chain Zone to Kiln Length Ratio
- 18.6 15.06 Length of Chain System
- 18.7 15.07 Chain Density
- 18.8 15.08 Heat Transfer Required in Chain System
- 18.9 15.09 Specific Chain System Performance Factors
- 18.10 15.10 Chain System Design for Wet Process Kilns
- 18.11 15.11 Kiln Chain Data-Round Links
- 18.12 15.12 Kiln Chain Data-Proof Coil (Oval Links)
- 18.13 15.13 Chain Shackle Data
- 18.14 15.13 Chain System Record Form

- 19 Chapter 16 KILN REFRACTORY
- 20 P A R T III G R I N D I N G
- 21 Chapter 18 and 19
GRINDING MILL INVESTIGATION
- 21.1 19.01 Mill Critical Speed Cs
- 21.2 19.02 Percent of Critical Speed
- 21.3 19.03 Ratio: Free Height to Mill Diameter
- 21.4 19.04 Internal Volume of Mill
- 21.5 19.05 Percent Loading of Mill
- 21.6 19.06 Bulk Volume of Ball Charge
- 21.7 19.07 Weight of the Ball Charge
- 21.8 19.08 Steel of Feed in Mill
- 21.9 19.09 Steel to Clinker Ratio
- 21.10 19.10 Bond’s Laboratory Work Index
- 21.11 19.11 Power Required
- 21.12 19.12 Mill Power
- 21.13 19.13 True Specific Power Demand of Grinding Mill
- 21.14 19.14 Mill Operating Efficiency
- 21.15 19.15 Specific Surface Grinding Efficiency
- 21.16 19.16 Mill Size Ratio
- 21.17 19.17 Specific Mill Volume per Horsepower
- 21.18 19.18 Separator Load
- 21.19 19.19 Separator Efficiency
- 21.20 19.20 Circulating Load
- 21.21 19.21 Size of Grinding Balls Required
- 21.22 19.09 What is the steel to clinker ratio of the following mill?
- 21.23 19.11 linker of 80 percent passing 3/8 in. has to be ground to a specific surface Blaine of 3200 cm2/g. what is the power required (kWh/t) to do this grinding work?
- 21.24 19.20 What is the circulating load when a given mill shows the following fineness passing the 325 sieve:

- 22 CHAPTER 20
USEFUL DATA FOR GRINDING MILL STUDY
- 22.1 20.01 Work Index for Various Materials
- 22.2 20.02 Size Distribution for a New Ball Charge in Mill
- 22.3 20.03 Grind ability Factor
- 22.4 20.04 Approximate 80 Percent Passing Size in Microns
- 22.5 20.05 Screen Size Conversion to Micron Size
- 22.6 20.06 Optimum SO3 Content in Cement
- 22.7 20.07 Calculations Related to Gypsum
- 22.8 20.07 Percent Gypsum Required for Desired SO3 in Cement
- 22.9 20.08 Cement Fineness
- 22.10 20.09 Heats of Hydration
- 22.11 20.10 Spray Cooling with Water

- 23 Chapter 21 GRINDING AIDS AND CEMENT FINENESS
- 24 PART IV ENGINEERING FORMULAS
- 25 Chapter 22 STEAM ENGINEERING
- 26 Chapter 23 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
- 27 Chapter 24 FAN ENGINEERING
- 28 Chapter 25
FLUID FLOW
- 28.1 25.01 Viscosity
- 28.2 25.02 Kinematic Viscosity
- 28.3 25.03 Specific Weight
- 28.4 25.04 Specific Volume
- 28.5 25.05 Specific Gravity
- 28.6 25.06 Mean Fluid Velocity
- 28.7 25.07 Barometric Pressure
- 28.8 25.08 Atmospheric Pressure
- 28.9 25.09 Gauge Pressure
- 28.10 25.10 Hydraulic Radius
- 28.11 25.11 Pressure Loss In Any Pipe
- 28.12 25.12 Friction Factor
- 28.13 25.13 Poiseuille’s Law for Laminar Flow
- 28.14 25.14 Reynolds Number
- 28.15 25.15 Critical Velocity
- 28.16 25.16 Total Head
- 28.17 25.17 Pressure Head
- 28.18 25.18 Velocity Head (Loss of Static Head)
- 28.19 25.19 Resistance Coefficient
- 28.20 25.20 Bernoulli’s Theorem
- 28.21 25.21 Heat Loss
- 28.22 25.22 Flow Coefficient of Valves
- 28.23 25.23 Flow Through a Valve
- 28.24 25.24 Pressure Drop Through Valves
- 28.25 25.25 Flow Through Pipe
- 28.26 25.26 Velocity vs. Cross-Sectional Area
- 28.27 25.27 Potential Energy for Fluids
- 28.28 25.28 Total Energy of a Liquid
- 28.29 25.29 Power of a Liquid
- 28.30 25.30 Flow Trough Nozzles and Orifice
- 28.31 25.31 Flow Coefficient
- 28.32 25.32 Flow Through Pipes
- 28.33 25.33 Flow Through Rectangular Weir
- 28.34 25.34 Flow Through Triangular Weir
- 28.35 25.35 Gas Flow Measurements
- 28.36 25.36 Pitot Tube Measurements
- 28.37 25.37 S-Tube Measurements
- 28.38 25.38 One-Point Traverse
- 28.39 25.39 Conversion of Flow Rates
- 28.40 25.40 Flow Determination with Orifice Plate
- 28.41 25.41 Ventury Meters

- 29 Chapter 26 HEAT TRANSFER
- 30 Chapter 27
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
GASES
- 30.1 27.01 Gas Laws
- 30.2 27.02 Gas Law Constant
- 30.3 27.03 Avogadros Law
- 30.4 27.04 Density of a gas
- 30.5 27.05 Standard Condition of a gas
- 30.6 27.06 Normal Density of a gas
- 30.7 27.07 Molecular Weight of Gases
- 30.8 27.08 Density Changes of Gases
- 30.9 27.09 Moles
- 30.10 27.10 Volume Changes of a Gas
- 30.11 27.11 Weight Percent of Solutions
- 30.12 27.12 Mole Fraction of a Solution
- 30.13 27.13 Molality of a Solution
- 30.14 27.13 Molarity of a Solution
- 30.15 27.14 Percent of an Element Contained in a Compound
- 30.16 27.15 Percent of a Compound Contained in a Substance
- 30.17 27.16 Weight Problems

- 31 Chapter 28
PHYSICS
- 31.1 28.01 Newton’s Law of Gravitation
- 31.2 28.02 Acceleration – Forces
- 31.3 28.03 Mass of a Body
- 31.4 28.04 Weight of a Body
- 31.5 28.05 Work Done
- 31.6 28.06 Power
- 31.7 28.07 Molecular Heat of Gases
- 31.8 28.08 Molecular Heat of Solids
- 31.9 28.09 Latent Heat of Fusion
- 31.10 28.10 Latent Heat of Evaporation
- 31.11 28.11 Heat of Formation and Reaction
- 31.12 28.12.1Joule Equivalent
- 31.13 28.13 Temperature of a Mixture
- 31.14 28.14 Gas Mixtures
- 31.15 28.15 Gas Constant, R
- 31.16 28.16 Friction Coefficient
- 31.17 28.17 Moment of Force-Torque
- 31.18 Chapter 29 PSYCHROMETRY
- 31.19 29.01 Basic Psychrometric Equation
- 31.20 29.02 Wet Bulb Depression
- 31.21 29.03 Relative Humidity
- 31.22 29.04 Dew Point

- 32 PART V EMISSION CONTROL AND PLANT EQUIPMENT
- 33 Chapter 30 TEST FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS
- 34 Chapter 31
USEFUL DATA FOR EMISSION CONTROL
- 34.1 31.01 Molecular Weights of Selected Gases
- 34.2 31.02 Conversion Factors for Emission Rates
- 34.3 Chapter 32 STORAGE AND TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT
- 34.4 32.01 Drum Dryers
- 34.5 32.02 Slurry Pumps
- 34.6 32.03 Bucket Elevators
- 34.7 32.04 Belt Conveyors
- 34.8 32.05 Screw Conveyors
- 34.9 32.06 Water Pumps
- 34.10 32.07 Storage Tanks
- 34.11 32.08 Drag Chains
- 34.12 32.09 Jaw and Gyratory Crushers
- 34.13 32.10 Stack and Chimneys

- 35 P A R T VI
APPENDIX
- 35.1 Section A MATHEMATICS ALGEBRA
- 35.2 A1.01 Exponents
- 35.3 A1.02 Fractions
- 35.4 A1.03 Radicals
- 35.5 A1.04 Factoring
- 35.6 A1.05 Scientific Notations
- 35.7 A1.06 Logarithms
- 35.8 A1.07 Determinants
- 35.9 A1.08 Quadratic Equation
- 35.10 A1.09 Powers of ten
- 35.11 A1.10 Power and Roots
- 35.12 A1.11 Fractions and Decimal Equivalents

- 36 TRIGONOMETRY
- 37 STATISTICS
- 38 FINANCES
- 38.1 A4.01 Compound Interest
- 38.2 A4.02 Total Annual Cash Flow
- 38.3 A4.03 After Tax Profit
- 38.4 A4.04 Straight Line Depreciation
- 38.5 A4.05 Double-declining Balance Depreciation
- 38.6 A4.06 Sum-of-Years Digit Depreciation
- 38.7 A4.07 Sixth-Tenth Factor
- 38.8 A4.08 Value of an Investment After Depreciatio
- 38.9 A4.09 Return on Investment, ROI
- 38.10 A4.10 Simple Compound Interest
- 38.11 A4.11 Present Worth
- 38.12 A4.12 Equal Payment Series Compound Amount
- 38.13 A4.14 Discouted Cash Flow Factors
- 38.14 A4.15 Deposit Calculation

- 39 SAFETY FORMULAS
- 40 PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY
- 40.1 Plane Figures
- 40.2 A6.01 Rectangle
- 40.3 A6.02 Parallelogram
- 40.4 A6.03 Triangle
- 40.5 A6.04 Circle
- 40.6 A6.05 Circular Sector
- 40.7 A6.06 Circular Segment
- 40.8 A.07 Circular Ring
- 40.9 A6.08 Ellipse
- 40.10 A5.09 Parabola
- 40.11 A6.10 Polygon
- 40.12 A6.11 Trapezoid
- 40.13 A6.12 Catenary
- 40.14 Solids
- 40.15 A6.14 Cylinder
- 40.16 A6.15 Pyramid
- 40.17 A6.16 Cone
- 40.18 A6.17 Frustum of a Cone
- 40.19 A6.18 Sphere
- 40.20 A6.19 Segment of a Sphere
- 40.21 A6.20 Sector of a Sphere
- 40.22 A6.21 Torus

# EVERY SINGLE EQUATION IN CEMENT INDUSTRY

**P A R T I**

**CEMENT CHEMISTRY**

# Chapter 1

# QUALITY CONTROL FORMULAS

## 1.01 Ignition Loss

Ignition loss is usually determined by tests in a laboratory furnace. It can also be

calculated from the chemical analysis of the kiln feed by the following formula:

## 1.02 Silica Ratio

Large variations of the silica ratio in the clinker can be an indication of poor

uniformity in the kiln feed or the fired coal. Changes in coating formation in the burning zone,

burnability of the clinker, and ring formations within the kiln can often be traced to changes

of the silica ratio in the clinker. As a rule, clinker with a high silica ratio is more difficult to

burn and exhibits poor coating properties. Low silica ratios often lead to ring formations and

low early strength (3 – 7 days) in the cement.

## 1.03 Alumina – Iron Ratio

Clinker with a high alumina – iron ratio, as a rule, produce cement with high early

strength (1 to 3 days) but makes the reaction between the silica and calcium oxide in the

burning zone more difficult.

## 1.04 Lime Saturation Factor

This factor has been used for kiln feed control for many years in Europe and only

recently has also found acceptance by American cement manufactures. When the lime

saturation factor approaches unity, the clinker is difficult to burn and often shows excessive

high free lime contents. A clinker, showing a lime saturation factor of 0,97 or higher

approaches the threshold of being “overlimed” wherein the free lime content could remain at

high levels regardless of how much more fuel the kiln operator is feeding to the kiln.

## 1.05 Hydraulic Ratio

This index is very seldom used any more in modern cement technology for kiln feed

control.

## 1.06 Percent Liquid

Clinker, when burned at a temperature of 1450ºC, Has the following liquid content:

## 1.07 Burn ability Index

This is an indicator of the ease of burning for a given clinker. The higher the index

number, the harder the clinker is to burn.

BF = LSF +10SR – 3(MgO + Alkalis)

(find LSF in 1.04 and SR in 1.02)

## 1.09 Bogue’s Formulas for Clinker and Cement Constituents

For a cement chemist, these formulas are the most important and frequently used

indicators of the chemical properties of a cement or clinker. The constituents calculated by

these formulas, however, are only the potential compositions when the clinker has been

burned and cooled at given conditions. Changes in cooling rate or burning temperature can

modify the true constituent composition to a considerable extent.

a) Bogue’s Formulas for Cement Constituents

b) Bogue Formulas for Clinker Constituents

When appreciable amounts of SO3 and Mn2O3 are present in the clinker, the values of

the chemical analysis have to be recalculated to take into account the amount of CaO that has

been combined with SO3, the amount of free lime present and the Mn2O3.

The values to be used in the Bogue formulas are:

To find the amount of CaO that is combined with SO3 as CaSO4 proceed as follows:

Having determined the appropriate values for the CaO and Fe2O3, one can then

proceed to calculating the potential clinker constituents by using the previously given Bogue

formulas. When the Bogue formulas are used for feed compositions, keep in mind that the

coal ash addition, dust losses, and alkali cycles can alter the final composition of the clinker.

Also use the analysis on a “loss free” basis in the calculations of the constituents.

## 1.10 Total Carbonates

Total carbonates are usually determined analytically by the acid-alkali titration

method. They can also be calculated from the raw (unignited) analysis as follows:

## 1.11 Total Alkalis as Na2O

The total alkali content in terms of sodium oxide is calculated from the loss free

analysis:

## 1.12 Conversion of Raw Analysis to Loss Free Basis

### where

Or = percent of oxide (by weight) on a raw basis

Of = percent of oxide (by weight) on loss free basis

L = percent loss on ignition (by weight)

1.13 Conversion of Kiln Dust Weight to Kiln Feed Weight

Dust collected in a precipitator or bag house of a kiln shows a different loss on ignition

than the kiln feed because it has been partially calcined. For inventory control purpose and in

some kiln operating studies it is often necessary to express the weight of dust in terms of

equivalent feed weight.

## 1.14 Calculation of Total Carbonates from Acid-Alkali Titration

This method is only applicable when the MgO content of the sample is known. Values

from the raw (unignited) basis are used for the calculation.

## 1.15 Percent Calcination

Kiln feed or dust samples taken at any location of the kiln are often investigated for

the apparent degree of calcination the sample has undergone.

## PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

Problems and examples shown in this chapter are all subsequent chapters are arranged

in the same sequence as the formulas are presented in the chapter.

**Chapter 2**

**KILN FEED MIX CALCULATIONS**

## 2.01 CaCO3 Required to Obtain a Given C3S in the Clinker

This formula should only be used as a quick reference in times when no other

analytical methods, other than the titration method, is available.

where

A = desired C3S in clinker

a = existing C3S in clinker

## 2.02 Two-Component Mix Calculations

a) To obtain a constant total carbonate content

This method can only be used when the MgCO3 content in the two components is

constant.

where

x = material A needed (percent by weight)

100 – x = material B needed (percent by weight)

C1 = TC in material A (percent by weight)

C2 = TC in material B (percent by weight)

TC = desired total carbonates

b) Percent of each component needed for a desired CaCO3

Use this formula only when the MgCO3 content in the two components is constant.

where

w = weight of material A needed for each 100 unit weights of material B

Cf = CaCO3 desired in mix

C1 = CaCO3 in material A

C2 = CaCO3 in material B

c) To obtain a constant C3S/C2S ratio

Insert the values found from the raw material analysis (on the raw basis)

d) Formulas for mix corrections

Limestone added to a cement rock to correct mix.

where

M = percent CaCO3 desired in mix

F = percent CaCO3 found in mix (before correction)

A = percent limestone already added

L = percent CaCO3 in limestone

X = corrected percent limestone needed to obtain M.

Clay added to a limestone to correct mix.

where

M = percent CaO or CaCO3 desired in mix

F = percent CaO or CaCO3 found in mix

B = percent clay already added

C = percent CaO or CaCO3 in clay

X = percent clay needed to obtain M

## 2.03 Three Component Mix Calculation

a) To obtain a desired LSF and SR

## 2) Desired compound composition

Whatever targets are set, make sure to make:

3) Theoretical compound composition for each component

To be calculated from the raw analysis data. Also make sure to use the proper sigh (+

or -).

Note: Proceed with the calculations only when the sum total of the compounds

corresponds to the total of the oxides, i.e, for L: total oxides = x1 + y1 + z1 , etc.

4) Calculations, auxiliary matrix

5) Weight of each component needed per unit weight of clinker

All weights units can be used, i.e., the results can be expressed in ton/ton, or kg/kg of

clinker. Results obtained must all be positive numbers. If any of the results are negative, the

desired mix cannot be obtained with the given raw materials. Fighter the targets have to be

changed or other suitable raw materials must be selected.

## 2.04 Four – Component Mix Calculation

a) Analysis of components (raw basis)

b) Desired clinker composition

c) Theoretical compound composition for each component

(to be calculated from raw analysis data, make sure to use the proper sign)

d) Raw material costs

(insert here the total costs per ton, for each raw material. These costs will

later be used to determinate the cost of the calculated mix)

Note: The sum total of the oxides of each raw material must equal the

sum total of the compounds of that material.

e) Calculation, auxiliary matrix

note: Make sure to indicate the proper sign in the results.

f) Weight of each component required per unit weight of clinker.

The result can be expressed in terms of kg/kg clinker. Results obtained must all be

positive numbers.

g) Final mix proportions

Note: All results are expressed in terms of a decimal.

h) Cost of the mix

The cost of the mix per unit weight of clinker can be calculated as follows:

## 2.05 Determination of Chemical Composition

When certain properties are required in a mix, a preliminary investigation of the

needed chemical composition can be made by the following trial and error method. This

method is only applicable when Al2O3/Fe2O3 is higher than 0,64.

Desired:

# PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

The sum total of the primary oxides is 97,91 and x1 has been found earlier to be 98,0.

Therefore, this composition is acceptable since the two agree closely with each other.

**Chapter 3**

**KILN FEED SLURRY**

## 3.01 Specific Gravity and Pulp Density of Slurries

## 3.02 Properties of Water

## 3.03 Mass of Slurry Required per Mass of Clinker

Metric units can be employed in this formula.

## 3.04 Slurry Feed Rate Required

## 3.05 Clinker Production for a Given Slurry Rate

C = clinker rate (long tons per hour)

c = clinker rate (short tons per hour)

w1 = mass slurry per mass of clinker

D = pulp density of slurry (kg/m3)

F = mass dry feed per mass of clinker (tons/ton) or (kg/kg)

G = slurry rate (m3/s)

g = slurry rate (gpm)

M = percent moisture

## 3.06 Clinker Production per Slurry Tank Unit

Note: This formula applies only to the cylindrical portion of the slurry tank.

## 3.07 Specific Gravity of Slurry

## 3.08 Dry Solids per unit Volume of Slurry

CT = tons clinker per meter of slurry tank height

F = mass of dry feed per mass of clinker (kg/kg) or (tons/ton)

R = radius of slurry tank (m)

S = kg solids per m3 of slurry

sgs = specific gravity of dry slurry

sgw = specific gravity of slurry

## PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

3.03 A given kiln uses a slurry of 32 percent moisture and the dry solids rate

has bee found to be 1,593 kg/kg clinker. What is the slurry consumption on this

kiln?

**Chapter 4**

**CHEMICAL AND PHISICAL PROPERTIES OF**

**MATERIALS USED IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING**

## 4.02 Bulk Densities of Common Materials

kg/m3

Aluminum 2595

Asbestos 3045

Brick (basic) 2400-2965

(alu.) 1520-1760

(firecly) 1360-1520

Cement (packed) 1506

(loose) 1200-1440

Clay (loose) 960-1200

Clinker 1440-1700

Coal (loose) 800-865

Coke 480-640

Concrete (reinforced) 2325

Gravel (loose) 1760

Ice 919

Iron (Cast) 7210

Iron Ore 2805

Kiln Feed (dry) 1360

Kiln Dust (loose) 1040

Limestone 1520

Mortar 1665

Fuel Oil 895

Sand 1520

Shale 2480

Slurry (@35 percent H2O) 1682

Steel 7850

Water 1000

## 4.03 Typical Coal Analysis

## 4.04 Typical Fuel Oil Properties

## 4.04 Typical Gaseous Fuel Properties

## 4.05 Barometric Pressure at Different Altitudes

## 4.06 Sieve Sizes

## 4.07 Coefficients of Linear Expansion

## 4.09 Properties of Air

## 4.10 Particulate Concentration in Gases

For gases:

1mg/liter = 24,04 m ppm

1mg/m3 = 0,02404 m ppm

where

m = molecular weight of gas

## 4.11 Selected International Weights

## 4.12 Selected Minerals and Ores

## 4.13 Classification of Minerals

a) Ingeous rock

These are formed by the intrusion or extrusion of magma or by volcanic activity. The

following minerals belong to this group:

Granite : Crystalline quartz and orthoclase

Orthoclase : Feldspar containing potassium

Plagioclase : Feldspar containing calcium and sodium

Quartz : Silicon dioxide

Biolite : A dark green form of mica consisting of silicate of Fe, Mg, K, or Al

Pyroxene : Silicate minerals containing calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, or

aluminum

Olivine : Silicate of magnesium and iron

Magnetite : Oxide of iron

b) Sedimentary rock

These are formed by deposits of sedimentation. They can also consist of fragments

of rock deposited in water or by precipitation from solutions and organisms. The following

rocks belong to this group:

Gravel Shale Chalk

Sandstone Limestone Marl

Siltstone Gypsum Coral

c) Metamorphic rock

These are minerals that have been changed by the action of heat, pressure, and water.

The following minerals belong to this group:

Gneiss : Laminated or foliated metamorphic rock

Schist : Crystalline metamorphic rock with foliated structure along

parallel planes

Marble : Metamorphic crystallized limestone

Quartzite : Metamorphic sandstone

## 4.14 Chemical Formula and Molecular Weight of Common Minerals

# Chapter 5

FORMULAS AND DATA USED IN COMBUSTION

CALCULATIONS

**5.01 Termochemical Reactions**

## 5.02 Combustion Constants

Note: Volumes at 16oC and 760 mm Hg.

## 5.03 Heat Value of Fuel

The heat value of a fuel is usually determined in a calorimeter. For an approximate

indication, the heat value can also be calculated from the ultimate analysis. Values for C

(carbon), S (sulfur), H (hydrogen), etc., are expressed in terms of percent by weight for coal

and in terms of percent by volume for natural gas.

## 5.04 Conversion from “Gross” to “Net” Heating Value’

The net heating value accounts for the heat losses that are experienced for the

evaporation of the moisture in the fuel as well as the water that is generated by the

combustion of hydrogen. Heating values obtained in the calorimeter are “gross” values and

can be converted to the “net” basis by the following formulas:

In Europe it is the custom to express the heating value or fuel consumption in terms of

the “net” basis whereas in North America the “gross” heating value is generally used.

## 5.05 Analysis of Coal

a) Ultimate analysis

C + H + N + S + O + Ash = 100 percent (by weight)

where

C = percent carbon, H = percent hydrogen, N = percent nitrogen,

S = percent sulfur, O = percent oxygen.

The percent oxygen (O) is not determined by analytical methods but calculated by

difference to make the sum total equal to 100.

b) Proximate analysis

V + free C + ash + m = 100 percent

where

V = percent volatiles,

free C = percent free carbon,

m = percent moisture

The percent free carbon is calculated by difference to make the sum total equal to 100.

## 5.06 Methods of Expressing Solid Fuel Analysis

Analysis of solid fuels should be reported with a note containing a remark in respect to

the method in which the analysis is expressed. The following are the methods (basis)

frequently used:

a) “as analyzed”

b) “dry basis”

c) “as received”

d) “combustible basis” (moisture and ash free)

e) “as fired”

For inventory control purposes it is of advantage to express coal tonnage, heating

value and its composition on the “dry basis” to eliminate the fluctuations coal undergoes

when it is stored and exposed to weathering.

## 5.07 Conversion of Coal Analysis to Different Basis

Let

Y = percent C, S, N, or percent ash

O = percent oxygen

H = percent hydrogen

m = percent moisture

subscript:

a = “as analyzed” basis

d = “dry basis”

r = “as received” basis

f = “as fired” basis

c = “combustible” basis

a) To convert from “as analyzed” to “dry” basis

b) To convert from “dry” to “as received” basis

Multiply all components, except hydrogen, by the factor

c) To convert from “dry” to “as fired” basis

Multiply all components, except hydrogen, by the factor

Note: in b) and c) above, the percent hydrogen is calculated as follows:

d) To convert from „as received” to „dry” basis

Multiply each component, except the hydrogen, by the factor

e) To convert from “combustible” to “as fired” basis

Multiply each component, except the hydrogen, by the factor

f) To convert from “as received” to “combustible” basis

Multiply each component, except the hydrogen, by the factor

The following table shows clearly how the values of a coal analysis and the heating

value can change when the analysis is expressed in different terms.

## 5.08 Typical Coal Ash Analysis

For a cement chemist, it is important to know the chemical composition of the coal

ash. The majority of the ash, during the burning of coal, enters the clinker and modifies its

chemical composition. On coal fired kilns, it is not only important to maintain a uniform kiln

feed but also to fire the kiln with a coal of uniform composition. In plants, where coal

originates from several different suppliers, provisions should be made to blend these coals

before they are fired in the kiln. A typical analysis of coal ash is shown in the following:

## 5.09 Fuel Ignition Temperature

The approximate ignition temperature of various fuels are

ºC

Coal 250

Wood 300

Bunker C oil 200

Diesel fuel 350

Natural gas 550

## 5.10 Percent Coal Ash Absorbed in Clinker

The percent coal ash contained in the clinker can be calculated from the loss-free

analysis of the ash, raw mix, and clinker as follows:

Analysis

## 5.11 Effect of Coal ash on Clinker Composition

Changes in the composition of the clinker as a result of coal ash addition can be

calculated by the following method:

Analysis (loss-free)

## 5.12 Determination of Theoretical Fuel Consumption

Knowing the properties of the coal, kiln feed, and the exit gas allows an engineer to

calculate the coal consumption by using Dr. Kuhl’s formula:

Data needed:

a = constant, 0,266

b = percent carbon in dry coal

c = percent hydrogen in dry coal

d = percent nitrogen in dry coal

e = percent oxygen in dry coal

f = percent sulfur in dry coal

g = percent ash in dry coal

What is the coal consumption on this kiln?

### PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

What is the net heating value of this coal expressed in terms of kcal/kg?

5.10 Given the following analysis on a loss free basis;

What percent ash does the clinker contain?

**Chapter 6**

**pH: HYDROGEN – ION – CONCENTRATIONS**

## 6.01 Definition of pH

The pH value of a chemical is indicated by the negative log of the hydrogen-ionconcentration

(hc +).

**6.02 Calculation of pH**

# P A R T II

B U R N I NG

**Chapter 7**

**TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF**

**KILN PERFORMANCRE**

## Introduction

The significant formulas for a study of the kiln performance and efficiency are given.

An engineer should follow the sequence in which the formulas are presented herein as many

calculation require the results obtained from earlier computations.

To simplify the engineers task, all the formulas are presented in the form of work

sheets that can be used to arrange the study in an orderly fashion. At the conclusion,

a summary sheet is also given to compile all the significant results of this study.

Data, formulas, and results are presented in metric system units by using the

appropriate worksheets in this chapter.

These worksheets can also be used to perform studies of parts of the kiln system

(e.g., the cooler operation). The reader should have no difficulties in selecting the appropriate

formulas from the worksheets in these instances.

For a complete study, it is essential that the kiln data be selected during a time when

the kiln operates in a stable and uniform manner.

## 7.01 Technical Information on kiln Equipment

Plant location:____________________________________ Kiln: _____________________

Kiln

Process: ___________________________________________________________________

Manufactured by: ____________________________________________________________

Year placed in operation: ______________________________________________________

Types of clinker produced: _____________________________________________________

Types of fuel burned: _________________________________________________________

Primary air source: ___________________________________________________________

Feeder type: ________________________________________________________________

Type of dust collector: ________________________________________________________

Dust processing: _____________________________________________________________

Preheater

Type: _____________________________________________________________________

Manufactured by: ___________________________________________________________

Year: _____________________________________________________________________

Cooler

Type: ____________________________________________________________________

Manufactured by: ___________________________________________________________

Year: _____________________________________________________________________

Other kiln equipment

Function Type Hp

……….. …….. ………

……….. …….. …………

……….. …….. …………

Date of investigation:_________________________________________________________

Tested by: _________________________________________________________________

# Chapter 8& 9

KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY

**Data needed**

Fuel Analysis (Oil or Coal – as Fired)

AA = Percent ash = ………..

AH = Percent hydrogen = ………..

AC = Percent carbon = ………..

AN = Percent nitrogen = ………..

AO = Percent oxygen = ………..

AS = Percent sulfur = ………..

AM = Percent moisture = ………..

AQ = Heat value (kcal/kg) = ………..

AJ = Heat value (kJ/kg) = ………..

CALCULATIONS

**9.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Kilogram of Clinker**

**9.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors**

Page 102 and 103 are missed

## 9.11 Products of Combustion

Note: For natural gas firing, use the formula 13.08 in chapter 13.

## 9.12 Weight of Gases from the Feed