The Customer’s Viewpoint

Cement Customer’s Viewpoint –Who are our customers? –What quality requirements do they have? –What value do our customers attribute to cement performance? INTRODUCTION The most important person in the cement manufacturing process is the customer. Failure to meet the needs and requirements of the customer will eventually lead to the decline of the cement industry […]

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10 secrets of clinker

10 secrets of clinker First Rule Reducing raw mix rejects lowers burning temperature and grinding energy. This is particularly the case with siliceous rejects. This action is also beneficial to strength properties. Key Figures: When the amount of 100µm rejects is reduced from 20 to 10%, the global raw mix cement energy consumption is lowered […]

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Cement: Agglomeration and weathering

Cement: Agglomeration and weathering Agglomeration and weathering Effects Agglomeration / weathering Factors and recommendations Effects Poor flow of cement (in dry) Due to agglomeration, difficult silo extraction extractors blockage loss of silo volume increased cohesion of powder bad cement distribution during mixing change of rheology longer setting time reduction of strength Agglomeration / weathering Lumps […]

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Cement: Strength development

Cement: Strength development Strength development Influencing factors: Let’s brainstorm … Strength development –Potential parameters o W/C o cement fineness o alkali sulphates o temperature o mixing energy o admixtures (accelerators – retardant) Strength development influencing factors W/C Cement fineness Others: alkali sulfates, temperature, mixing energy, admixtures (accelerators – retardant) W/C How does porosity appear? When […]

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Cement: Setting

Cement: Setting Definition – Measurement Influencing parameters Stiffening Setting Definition – Measurement Cement setting definition Setting opassage from liquid or plastic state to a solid state Setting time o time required for a cement paste, gauged to a standard consistency, to reach a state of rigidification determined by the penetration of a standard needle Standard consistency […]

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Optimum sulphate content

Optimum sulphate content –Why? o to obtain a good workability o silicates normal hydration o better strength –The optimal quantity of sulphates depends on o % C3A & C4AF o cement fineness o sulphates reactivity Sulphates   Optimum sulphate content  Low alkaline sulphates level Optimum sulphate content High alkaline sulphates level   Sulphates  Action on […]

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Cement: hydration mechanisms

Cement: hydration mechanisms   Hydration mechanisms Necessity of sulfate Hydration disorders Hydration energy   Hydration mechanisms Hydration of a clinker particle o heterogeneous o multiphase What happens when mixing water and cement ? –dissolution in the water. –nucleation period –chemical reaction with the H2O molecules to build hydrates. (new crystals contain water in their structure […]

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Cement: The added components

Cement: The added components What’s cement? How does cement react? Added components What’s cement? Cement definition EN 197-1:2000 Hydraulic binder i.e. a finely ground inorganic material, which, when mixed with water, forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydration reactions and processes and which, after hardening, retains its strength and stability even […]

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clinker Grindability

clinker Grindability   Grinding … is necessary o to create surface area so that a good chemical reaction occurs (Blaine) o to reduce particle size and ensure that all of it will be consumed (mesh sieves and micron sizes) uses ~ 60% of plant electricity   To evaluate energy required to reach a wanted fineness […]

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Interaction Raw mix Process quality of clinker

Interaction Raw mix Process quality of clinker Interaction raw mix chemical composition Raw mix chemical composition Example of raw mix chemical composition Burning condition A hot and short burning zone gives easy grinding clinker Give the clinker a breath of fresh air A big reduction in volatilization with, in addition: -Steady kiln operation -Stable clinker quality Influence grinding – burning […]

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